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Cornell University Library 
BX345 .P49 1898 

Orthodox confession of the ,Ca}fio'ij=,,,a"'* 


3 1924 029 363 094 

The original of tiiis book is in 
tine Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 
















London : 




The present version of the famous Catechism of Peter 
Mogila is attributed to Philip Lodvel, otherwise 
Lodvill, or Ludville and was originally published in 
1772. Thus having the merit of being the first 
authoritative work in English on the doctrines and 
practices of the Orthodox Church. 

■^ Philip Lodvel, who appears to have been born in 
Oxfordshire, was a convert to Orthodoxy, and a 
worshipper and communicant in the Russian Church 
in London, where he also received the Prayer-oil. He 
died on the 14th of March, j.767, and was buried in 
Stratfordde-Bow Churchyard on the 22nd of the same 
month. A daughter of his, also an Orthodox, married 
Peter Paradise, British Consul at Salonica ; whose son 
John Paradise, D.C.L. of Oxford, was the friend and 
correspondent of Dr. Johnson. 






" Meditate upon these things ; give thyself wholly to them. 
" Take heed unto thyself, and unto thy Doctrine ; continue in them : For in so 
doing thou shalt save thyself." — 1 Tim. iv. 15 and 16. 


Among the many Orthodox Catechisms there is none more 
authoritative, none more comprehensive, than Peter Mogila's 
Confessio Ortkodoxa, which we here reproduce after an old 
English translation, only altering some archaisms in spell- 
ing and a few inexact expressions. 

Peter Mogila, the son of Symeon Ivanovitch, hospodar of 
Wallachia, was raised in 1632 to the Metropolitan see of 
KiefP. He was a man distinguished by learning and piety, 
who made it the aim of his life to combat the doctrinal errors 
of Eomanism and Calvinism. For this purpose he prepared, 
or rather revised, in a provincial synod (1640), assisted by 
three Bishops, a Catechism, whose author is said to have been 
Isaias Trophimovitch Koslovsky, Igumen (abbot) of a Kieff 
monastery. Subsequently the Synod of Jassy examined it, 
and in 1643 the four Patriarchs approved and recommended 
it as a safe and faithful guide for all Orthodox Christians. 

Anglican and Protestant divines generally, seeing the 
agreement of our Catechism with expressions and doctrines 
of the Council of Trent, have denounced it as tainted with 
Latinism. But they forgot all the while what a large por- 
tion of Orthodox teaching the Latin Church had preserved, 
and how the common fight of the Greek and the Latin 
Churches against the inroad of Protestantism into the East 
and West could but welcome the points of contact between 
the two Churches. But the careful examination and appro- 
bation of the highest ecclesiastical authorities are a sure 
guarantee that our faith is here represented pure and un- 



Dearly beloved Brother, in our Lord and God, and Saviour, 
Jesus Christ, 
Be pleased to accept this Labour of Love, of thine unworthy 
Fellow- Servant ; who mindful of the Command, " When thou 
art converted, strengthen thy Brethren^'' presenteth, with all 
Humility, these his Endeavours, for thine Attainment of 
the Truth and everlasting Salvation : And, in return, assist 
him with thy Prayers, to the throne of Grace and Mercy ; 
that whilst he offereth Instruction to others, he may so take 
heed unto himself, that he become not a Cast-away. 

Thus saith the Lord, Stand ye in the Ways, and see, and 
ask for the old Paths, where is the good Way, and walk therein, 
and ye shall find Rest for your Souls. — Jekem. vi. 16. 

Unto you that fear my Name shall the Sun of Righteous- 
ness arise with healing in his Wings. — Mal. iv. 2. 

The Orthodox Confession of the 





By the Mercy of God, Patriarch of the Holy City of Jeru- 
salem and of all Palestine, 


All orthodox Readers, my beloved Brethren, and Children in 
the Lord, Grace, Peace, and Mercy, from God. 

If thou desirest, dear Reader, to be instructed in the right 
Faith and to be enlightened with the Brightness of the 
immaterial Light ; now, whilst thou livest in this thy Mate- 
rial Body which is to live above all visible Beings, and to 
ascend on the Wings of the Mind, to God ; it behoveth thee 
to read, with the closest Attention, this little book, which 
containeth a very compendious, yet plain and clear, Compre- 
hension of true Doctrine : as appears, I think fully, from 
the Title of it ; being called. The Orthodox Confession of the 
Greeks, which is as much as to say: the Pure and Peculiar; 
inasmuch as it hath no Admixture of Novelty from other 
Religions. It was originally composed in the Russian Church, 
which, for a long series of Time, hath conformed herself to 
the orthodox Canon of the Eastern Church on the foUowino' 

Peter Mogila, who lately departed piously, and holily, unto 
God, being chosen, and ordained, an orthodox Metropolitan, 
by the most holy, and eminent, the Lord Theophanes, Patri- 
arch of Jerusalem; when he took upon him the Government 
of the Church of Kieif that was committed to his charge he 
found his Flock confused and infected, with certain novel 
Opinions of Sectaries entirely contrary to the genuine and 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 7 

ancient Doctrine of their Forefathers. Wherefore, as be- 
came a good Shepherd and zealous Defender of the Faith, 
he entered immediately on a Resolution, the most pious and 
pleasing to God, of restoring and conducting the Russian 
Church into that purity of the holy Doctrine, in which it had 
flourished from its first Beginning : And of utterly rooting 
out again those novel Opinions, which then began to spring 
up in those Parts ; and also of filling his spiritual Garner 
with a joyful Harvest of good and wholesome Fruits. 

Having thus wisely and duly determined with himself, 
he entered upon the "Work without any Delay; and con- 
vened, in his metropolitical City, a number of the learned 
and eminent Persons of his Province : Having first of all 
gathered together his three Bishops who were ordained at 
the same time together with him by the same most praise- 
worthy Patriarch of Jerusalem. Here after many Disquisi- 
tions, it was, with one Consent and one Voice, agreed by 
all, that they should consign this Exposition of the Faith to 
writing. Point by Point, and lay it before the Church of 
Constantinople, and her holy Synod, for a more mature 
Examination, and Judgment of the Matter : (for at that 
time they followed the Authority of that Church, and unto 
her, as to an Head did all the Orthodox Greeks submit 
themselves ; and on her fixed their Attention, as on a most 
sure Guide) to the end that whatsoever Articles she con- 
firmed by her Approbation, the same they should firmly 
retain : and reject as spurious and false, whatsoever she 
condemned. Having in this manner finished the book which 
they called The Exposition of the Russian Faith; they 
solicited that some Bynodical Curators, and Patriarchal Ex- 
archs, might be sent into Moldavia, and promised, that they 
should send thither also certain Delegates from themselves ; 
by whom these Heads of their Faith should first be accu- 
rately examined, namely, whether they agreed or not, with 
the sound and right Doctrines of the Eastern Church, After 
which they should be publicly and solemnly communicated 
to the Church of Constantinople. There were therefore sent 
for this purpose, from the holy Synod, the most holy Metro- 
politan of Bice, Porphyrins ; and Meletius Syrigits, Doctor 

8 The Orthodox Gcmfession of the 

of the Church, a Man who from his Childhood, having been 
nourished and brought up in true, and holy Doctrines, was 
most eminent for Sanctity of Life and exquisite Learning ; 
and was deservedly esteemed to be, and really was, the 
Preacher, Interpreter, and very Rule itself, of the most 
genuine and true Doctrines of the Faith. Representing 
therefore the very Person of the Patriarch ; and vested with 
the most full and plenary Powers of the whole sacred 
Synod; he went into Moldavia, as we had said, together 
with Porphyrius ; whither also, sent from the Russians, 
came Isaias Trophimus, and Conovicius, and Xenovicius ; 
Men truly excellent, adorned with all kind of Learning and 
liberal Knowledge. These three taking God only for their 
Gruide and Master, who is the Giver of all Knowledge, and 
of all true Holiness and Understanding, brought the book 
to this excellent Conclusion ; having by much mutual Dis- 
quisition and Disputation thoroughly purged it from all 
foreign Doctrines and Defilements of Novelty, and then forth- 
with he sent it to the most holy four orthodox Patriarchs, 
the Successors in the Seats of the Apostles, to be reviewed 
and considered of. They also confirmed it with their Ap- 
probation, as containing the true and genuine Doctrines, 
and in nothing departing from the sincere and catholic 
Faith of the Greeks : And declared it to be pure and un- 
corrupt; by the universal Judgment, Determination, and 
Consent of all, And furthermore by their own proper sub- 
scription, and of their Clergy as appears hereunto annexed, 
they decreed and confirmed it ; and entitled it, not only of 
the Russians, but by a more universal Appellation, The 
orthodox Confession of all the Greeks. Yet however, this 
book as it was but lately to be had in print among the 
Russians, so among the Greeks it was only to be had in 
Manuscripts, and that but very rarely: Whereupon the 
Lord Panagiota, Interpreter to his imperial Majesty of the 
East and West, A person of Wisdom and Piety, and entirely 
devoted to true Religion ; as he is most regardful and affec- 
tionate of our Greek Nation, and zealous Contender for the 
orthodox Faith ; among his many other magnificent Works 
and public Employments, wherein he is daily and hourly 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 9 

engaged, he williDgly undertook the Care and Patron- 
age of this also ; and caused this book to be printed 
at his own Expense in our and the Latin Languages : 
That every one, who was desirous to increase in Piety, 
might without any Expense (For he caused the Copies 
to be distributed to all gratis) be provided with a book : 
from whence as from a source of pure and living Water, 
and out of the genuine Fountain of Salvation {Isaiah 
xiii. 3) draw the sacred Doctrine of our Church, unpol- 
luted with the muddy and foreign Opinions of Sectaries. 
And now, let no one marvel, that this book is expressed in 
a plain Style, and unadorned with Eloquence ; seeing that 
thereby, it is not only fitted for the learned, but the un- 
learned Multitude also : For the wise and prudent Reader 
ought not to regard the unfinished Manner of Expression, 
but the truth of the Words and Thoughts : but rather we 
are bound to the highest and most perpetual thanks unto 
him who hath bestowed so great a Benefit upon us, and 
implore God, with ceaseless Prayers, that he would be 
pleased abundantly to reward him ; and in the world to 
come, crown him with an everlasting Retribution. 

Given at our Court at Constantinople Monastery the xx 
Day of November cioioclxii. 


By the Mercy of God, Archbishop of Constantinpole, New 
Rome, and Universal Patriarch. 

Our Mediocrity, together with the sacred Congregation of 
Archbishops, and Clergy, here present, have carefully perused 
a Book transmitted unto us from our own Sister, the Church 
of Little Russia, entitled. The Orthodox Confession of Faith 
of the Catholic and Apostolic Church of Christ; Wherein 
those Things are treated of under a threefold Division, of 
Faith, and Charity, and Hope ; so that Faith is set forth in 
the Twelve Articles of Faith, or the holy Nicene Creed : 
Charity in the Ten Commandments, and in the holy and 

10 The Orthodox Confesdoii of the 

divinely inspired Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments, 
shewing what is necessary to be believed ; Hope in the 
Lord's Prayer, and the nine sacred Evangelical Beatitudes. 
We find the said Book to be set in the Footsteps of the 
Church of Christ and to be agreeable to the holy Canons, 
from which it differeth not in any Part : But not having 
Eead the Latin Translation Thereof, which is in the opposite 
Pages, we do only confirm that, which is written in our 
Language, We do therefore with an unanimous and Synodical 
Sentence ; decree and ordain, that every pious and orthodox 
Christian, who is a Member of the Eastern and Apostolical 
Church, do attentively, and sedulously, read and receive the 
said Book. 

In perpetual Faith and Assurance whereof we have con- 
firmed these Presents with our Subscriptions this xi Day of 
March in the Year cidiocxliii. 

Subscribed by the Hand of the most holy Patriarch thus : 

Paethenids, By the Mercy of God, Archbishop of Constanti- 
nople, New Rome, and universal Patriarch. 

JoANNicius, By the Mercy of God, Papas and Patriarch of 
the Great City of Alexandria, and Judge of the Universe. 

Macaritjs, By the Mercy of God, Patriarch of the Great City 
of Antioah. 

Paisius, By the Mercy of God, Patriarch of the holy City of 

Laurence, of Ancyra. 

Gregory, of Lissa. 

Pachomius, of Chalcedon. 

Parthbnius, of Adrianople. 

JoANNicius, of Berrhaea. 

Mbletids, of Rhodes. 

Cornblids, of Methymna. 

Gabriel, of Lacedcemon. 

Parthbnids, of Cliio. 

Lascaris, Great Logothetes of the great Church. 

Christoddlus, Great Oeconomus of the great Church. 

Michael, Great Rhetor of the great Church. 

Theologus, Priest, Great Chaplain of the great Church. 

George, Lesser Chaplain of the great Church. 

The Great Ghartophylax, of the great Church. 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 11 

Thomas Blastus, Protecdik of the great Church. 
Philip, Frotonotary of the great Church. 
CoNSTANTiNE, Protapostolary of the great Church. 
NicoLAUs, Logothetes of the great Church. 
CoNSTANTiNE, Comentariends of the great Church. 
Michael, Dicoeophylax of the great Church. 
Chrtsosculds, Logothetes of the public Treasury of the great 

These copies are to be given, and presented gratis, to all 
pious Christians, for the Benefit of the Soul of the most 
illustrious and eloquent Lord, the Lord 


12 The Orthodox Confession of the 





Question 1. 

What doth it behove a Catholic and Orthodox Christian 
Man to believe and do, that he may have eternal life ? 


Right Faith and good Works ; for whosoever holdeth these 
two, the same is a good Christian, and hath certain Hope of 
eternal Salvation, as saith the Scripture {James ii. 24.) You 
see then how that hy good Works a Man is justified, and not 
by Faith only ; and a little after (ver. 6), For as the Body 
without the Spirit is dead; so Faith without Works is dead 
also. The same affirmeth St. Paul (to Timothy, chap. i. 19), 
Holding Faith and a good Conscience, which some having put 
away concerning Faith, have made shipwreck. And again 
(1 Tim. iii. 9), Holding the Mystery of the Faith in a pure 

Question 2. 

Wherefore doth it behove a Christian first to believe, 
and then to do good Works ? 


Because without Faith none can please God, as saith St. 
Paul {Heb. xi. 6), Without Faith it is impossible to please 
him: For he that cometh to God, must believe that he is ■ and 
that he is a Rewarder of them who diligently seek him. That 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 13 

a Christian therefore be acceptable to God, and his Works 
pleasing before him, it is necessary that, First, he have 
Faith in God ; and Secondly, that he guide his Life by that 

Question 3. 
In what do these two consist ? 


In these three Theological Virtues, Faith, Hope, and 
Chaeitt ; into which three Parts it is our Intent to divide 
this Confession ; namely, in the First Part we shall treat 
concerning Faith : In the Second, of Hope and the Lord's 
Prayer, and the Evangelical Beatitudes : And, lastly, in 
the Third Part, of the divine Law, in which the Love of 
God and of our Neighbour is contained. 


Question 4. 
What is Faith? 


Faith (according to the blessed Paul, Heb. xi. 1) is the sub- 
stance of Things hoped for, the Evidence of Things not seen ; 
for by it the Elders have obtained a good Report; or, the 
Orthodox Catholic and Apostolic Faith is to believe with the 
Heart and confess with the Mouth, one God in three Persons. 
As the same Apostle teacheth us {Rom. x. 10), With the 
Heart is believed unto Righteousness, and with the Mouth Con- 
' fession is made unto Salvation. 

Further, every orthodox Christian ought firmly and with- 
out doubting, to believe all the Articles of Faith that the 
Catholic and Orthodox Church believeth; which were de- 
livered unto the Church from our Lord Jesus Christ by the 
Apostles : And which have been expounded and approved 
by General Councils {Synod 6, Canon 82). These also is 
he to believe with a real and sincere Faith ; as the Apostle 
commandeth (2 Thess. ii. 15), Therefore, Brethren, standfast, 
and hold the Traditions which ye have been taught, whether by 

14 The Orthodox Confession of the 

Word or our Epistle. And again elsewhere (1 Cor. xi. 2), 
Now I praise you, Brethren, that you rememher me in all 
things, and keep the Traditions as I have delivered them unto 
you. From hence it is manifest that the Articles of Faith 
have received their Authority and Approbation partly from 
the holy Scriptures, partly from ecclesiastical Tradition, and 
the Doctrines of Councils, and of the holy Fathers ; which 
matter St. Dionysius thus explaineth {Hierarch. EccL, cap. I, 
page 108, Morell), " The Oracles delivered of God are the 
Essence and Foundation of this our Hierarchy. Of these we 
chiefly reverence whatever our divine Teachers the Apostles have 
delivered unto us in the sacred and theological Books; and 
next those things in which those most holy Men instituted and 
initiated our Instructors and Leaders by a kind of immaterial 
Initiation, and, as it were, from the very Transcript of the 
Heavenly Hierarchy ; as it were, by a mental Communication ; 
by the Means indeed of corporeal Speech, but not the Materi- 
ality of Writing." That is, the Precepts of the Church are 
of two kinds, the one committed to writing, which are con- 
tained in the divine Books of sacred Scripture, and the 
other delivered from the Apostles by "Word of Mouth. These 
are the same which the Councils and holy Fathers did after- 
wards more at large declare. On this twofold Foundation 
standeth built our Faith, which it is our Duty not only to 
keep shut up in the Privacy of our own Breast, but un- 
dauntedly, and without doubting, to preach and profess 
openly with our Mouths, according to the holy Psalmist and 
St. Paul {Psal. cxvi. 10), J believed, and therefore have I 
spoken; we believe, and therefore speak. 

Question 5. 

What are the Articles of the Catholic and Orthodox 
Faith ? 


The Articles of the Orthodox and Catholic Faith are twelve 
in Number, according to the Creed of the first Council 
held at Nice, and the second held at Constantinople: 
In which Councils every thing belonging to our Faith is 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 15 

laid down so accurately, and at large, that neither are we to 
believe more nor ought we to believe less, than is therein 
expressed ; nor may we understand or construe it in any 
other Sense, than did those Fathers. 

Question 6. 
What is the first Article of Faith ? 


I believe in one God, the Father Almighty, Maker of Heaven 
and Earth, and of all things visible and invisible. 

Question 7. 

What are the Doctrines contained in this Article of 
Faith ? 


This Article includeth two Doctrines ; first, that we should 
believe and confess, that God is One {Deut. vi. 4) to be 
adored in most holy Trinity ; and that in this divinity the 
Father is the Origin and Root of the Son and the Holy 
Ghost. Secondly, that this Triune God created all things out 
of nothing, both visible and invisible ; as testifies the holy 
Prophet {Psal. xxxiii. 9), He spoke, and they were made; 
he commanded, and they were created. 

Question 8. 

How ought I to think of God ? 



Thou oughtest to believe that God is one in most holy 
Trinity, according to these Words of Scripture : {Ephes. 
iv. 6,) One God and Father of all, who is above all, and 
through all, and in us all : Who, out of his infinite Good- 
ness, created this World from nothing, that other Beings, 
in glorifying him might partake of his Felicity ; not that 
he wanted any thing ; being in himself most completely 

16 The Orthodox Confession of the 


glorious and perfect. Yet cannot any created Beings, 
whether visible or invisible, not even the Angels themselves, 
thoroughly comprehend the nature of God, forasmuch as 
there can be no Proportion or Comparison between the 
Creator and the Creature, It is sufficient for us (as saith 
St. Cyril of Jerusalem, Catech. vi. p. 40, Morell), " If we 
rightly profess to have one eternal aud unchangeable God, 
beside him there is no other God^ As the Lord himself 
hath declared by his Prophet {Isaiah xliv. 6), / am God, 
the First and the Last; beside me there is no other God. 
After the same Manner, also, Moses exhorteth the Children 
of Israel {Deut. vi. 4), Hear, Israel, the Lord our God is 
one Lord? 

Question 9. 

But, if God is One, it seemeth, of Necessity, that he 
should also be one only in Person. 


It is not necessarily so ; for altho' God, in his Nature and 
Essence, is indeed but One ; yet in Person is he Three : 
As our Saviour himself teacheth, saying unto his Apostles 
{Matth. xxviii. 19), Go, teach all Nations, baptizing them in the 
name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. 
From whence it is manifest that in one and the same God- 
head there be three distinct Persons, the Father, the Son 
the Holy Ghost — The Father, of whose proper Essence the 
Son was begotten, and the Holy Ghost proceeded before all 
Ages ; The Son, begotten before all Worlds by the Father 
and consubstantial with him ; The Holy Ghost, proceeding 
from the Father from all Eternity, and co-essential with the 
Father aud the Son, as the divine Damascene explaineth in 
these Words (Book i. chap. 11), The Son and the Holy 
Ghost are from the same Cause, namely, the Father; and 
elsewhere (chap, x.) The Son is of the Father as being be- 
gotten. The Holy Ghost is also of the Father, not as being 
begotten, but as proceeding. Furthermore, Gregory the 
Divine {De Spiritu Sancto, p. 64, Aid. p. 604, Also p. 431) 
on these Words of the Apostle to the Romans (chap. xi. 

Catliolic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 17 

36) : of him and through him, and to him are all things, 
speaketh thus : " The first, {i.e., of him) n>e apply to the 
Father, the second to the Son, and the third (that is, to him) 
to the Holy Ghost ; from whence it is manifest that, in the 
Godhead, there is a Trinity. Wherefore, without any Dif- 
ference or Distinction, we are baptizing in the Name of the 
Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost ; For what 
the Father is in his Nature, the same is the Son and the 
Holy Ghost. Now the Father is, in his Nature, true and 
eternal God, the Creator of all things both visible and 
invisible. Such therefore is the Son, entirely without any 
Difference, and the Holy Ghost ; and all these are con- 
substantial with each other. Accordingly the Evangelist 
teacheth (1 John v. 7), There are three that bear Record in 
Heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost, and these 
three are one. In which Words this only is to be excepted, 
that, as to the divine Essence, The Father is the Cause of 
the Son and the Holy Ghost, inasmuch as both these Per- 
sons have their Origin from him, and he from none. Thus 
we are taught by our Saviour Jesus, who is Eternal Truth 
itself. Thus have we received from the holy Apostles. 
Thus, and thus only, have both universal, aud particular 
Councils, and the Doctors of the Church, taught, declared, 
and decreed. And thus our Orthodox and Catholic Church 
professeth and teacheth. For this Faith the holy Martyrs 
poured out their Blood, and laid down their lives. And this 
Faith we must, with our whole Hearts, steadfastly believe 
and keep firm and unshaken, laying down our Lives for it, 
if requisite, through the Hope of eternal Salvation ; which, 
if good Works accompany our Faith, we shall be crowned 
with everlastingly in Heaven. 

Question 10, 

I would have this Mystery of the holy Trinity more fully 
explained to me. 


No Comparison can be made, which would fully explain this 
Mystery ; so as that we should clearly comprehend, how God, 

18 The Orthodox Confession of the 

who is in Essence but One, should be Theee in Person. No 
likeness, nor Example, can sufficiently express him ; as God, 
whose name is Jehovah, doth himself testify ; saying (Isai. 
xlvi. 5), To whom will ye liken me, and make me equal, and 
compare me, that we may he alike? For the Mind of Man, 
or Angel, is unable to conceive, or to express this wondrous 
Truth : wherefore we should wisely say, with the Apostle 
(2 Cor. X. 5), Casting down Imaginations, and every high thing 
that exalteth itself against the Knowledge of God ; and bring 
into Captivity every thought to the Obedience of Christ. We 
believe, with a firm Faith, that God the Father, self-existing 
from Eternity to Eternity, depending on none, begot the Son, 
and produced the Holy Ghost : As St. Athanasius, in his 
Creed, doth more fully, and at large, declare. And being 
contented with this Simplicity of Faith, let us search no 
farther. For the inquisitive Searcher into the hidden things 
of God is forbidden in holy Scripture {Sirach iii. 21), Seek 
not out the Things that are too hard for thee ; neither search the 
Things that are above thy Strength; but what is commanded 
thee, think thereupon with Reverence ; for it is not needful for 
thee to see with thine Eyes the Things that are in secret. Let 
it therefore suffice us, that those same Scriptures of the old 
Law, at the same time that they declare unto us one God, do 
also teach us Three Peesons, ( Gen. i. 26) God said. Let Us 
make Man after Our Image and in Our Likeness. And (chap, 
iii. 22), Behold the man is become as one of Us ; and (chap, 
xi. 7), Go to, let Us go down and there confound their Language. 
And the Prophets expressly declare this saying {Isai. vi. 3), 
And one (Angel) cried unto another, and said. Holy, holy, holy. 
Lord Sabaoth, the whole Earth is full of his Glory. In like 
manner the holy Psalmist (Psal. xxxiii. 6), By the Word 
of the Lord were the Heavens made, and all the Host of them 
by the Spirit of Ms Mouth. To this same purpose the blessed 
Scriptures, and the Doctors of the Church are full. 

Question 11. 
What are the Attributes of God ? 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 19 


As God himself is iiicompreliensible ; so also are his Attri- 
butes. Yet so much as we can learn concerning them from 
the Scriptures, and the Doctors of the Church, we may think 
and declare of them. We may therefore consider the divine 
Attributes as Peesonal or Essential. 

Question 12. 
What are the Personal Attributes of God ? 


The Personal Attributes of the Godhead are those by 
which the Persons in the most holy Trinity are distinguished 
from each other. As, what appertaining to the One, cannot 
appertain to the other : Thus the Person of the Father is not 
the Person of the Son, for the Father is begotten of none, 
but the Son was essentially begotten of the Father before all 
Ages ; as saith the Scriptures (PsaL ex. 3), The Dew of thy 
Birth is of the Womh of the Morning. Thus Father, Son, 
Holy Ghost, unbegotten, begotten, proceeding ; as peculiar 
to each Person: This is what distinguisheth or divideth the 
divine Persons but not their Essence, which in itself is 
undividable, only separated from created Beings. Now as 
the Unbegotten and the Begotten cannot be the Person, so 
we are to consider the Holy Ghost, who proceeded from the 
Essence and Nature of the Father, without any beginning of 
Time, that is, from all Eternity, and is consubstantial with 
the Father and the Son ; yet distinct from him in bis per- 
sonal Attribute, as proceeding from him. And in like manner 
from the Son, as being from the same Father, not by Gene- 
ration, like the Son, but by Procession, and therein co-essential 
with the Son, as being from the same Nature of the Father, 
with whom they are both consubstantial, as being of the 
same Nature with him. On which thus discourseth Gregory 
the Divine (Orat. xxiii. eiVKjocoi/a, p. 442), " This is common 
to the Son and the Holy Ghost, that both Persons are from 
the Father. But this peculiar to the Father, that he is unbe- 

20 The Orthodox Confession of the 

gotten, as it is to the Son, that he is begotten, and to the 'Roin 
Ghost, that he proceedetk" And farther the whole Dispen- 
sation of the Incarnation, is a joersowa/ Attribute of the Son, 
forasmuch as neither the Father nor the Holt Ghost were 
incarnate. Thus doth the Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic 
Church teach us to believe and confess ; God ; One in Nature 
and Three in Person : concerning which, read the first Council 
of Nice, and the second general Council of Constantinople. 

Question 13. 
What are the Essential Attributes of God ? 


The Essential Attributes of God, are those which equally 
belong to the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost : Namely, 
to be God, to be Creator, to be Fore-knowing, to behold 
all Things, to be present with all Things, to fill all Things, 
to be infinite and boundless, to know all Things, whether 
hidden or manifest ; and to sum up all in a few "Words, 
besides the Personal Attributes before-mentioned, as of the 
Father to be unbegotten, and the Cause of the Persons, of 
the Son to be begotten and incarnate, and of the Holy 
Ghost to proceed ; whatever else is said of God, is pro- 
perly an Attribute of the Divine Nature, and equally 
appertaineth to the three Persons, without any Difference 
and Distinction. 

Question 14. 

Why is only this Attribute, Almighty, expressed in the 
first Articles of the Creed ? 


Because this Word, Almighty, most fully expresses the 
peculiar Essence of the divine Nature, since no created Beino" 
can be called Almighty ; and that for two Reasons, namely 
first, for that it doth not derive its Nature from itself but 
from its Creator; and, secondly, because no created Being 
can produce something out of nothing, which Almio-htiness 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 21 

alone can do. And God hath declared his Almightiness in 
the Bevelation (i. 8), I am Alpha and Omega, the Beginning 
and the Ending, saith the Lord, which is, and which was, and 
which is to come, the Almighty. The same saith the Arch- 
Angel Gabriel {Luke i. 37), With God nothing shall be im- 
possible. Nevertheless, this universal Power and Almighti- 
ness of God, is distinct from his Will and Benevolence, 
inasmuch as that doth not all which it can, but all which 
this appointeth : According to the holy Psalmist {Psal. cxv. 
3), As for our God, he is in Heaven; he hath done whatsoever 
pleased him. For it is certain had he pleased, he might 
have made six thousand Worlds as easily as he made this, 
but he milled not. We must, farthermore, consider the 
divine All-powerfulness as joined with the highest and 
utmost Perfections, most clearly void of all, even the least 
Weakness or Imperfection ; as for instance, God cannot be 
evil ; he cannot sin, he cannot lie nor deny himself (2 Tim. 
ii. 13; Heh. vi. 18), for these are mere Imperfections: And 
God cannot be Almighty if he could be wicked, or defiled 
with Sin, or deny himself; these being the Marks or Fruits 
of Imperfections. But God is Almighty by his Will and 
most perfect Goodness, as the Prophet celebrates him (Psal. 
Ixxvii. 13, 14), Who is so great a God as our God? Thou 
art the God that dotk Wonders, and hast declared thy Power 
among the People. To conclude, God is styled Almighty, 
because all things are in his Power and Command, and 
because without any Labour or Difficulty he created the Uni- 
verse by merely and only Willing that it should be so. 

Question 15. 

Why is God said to be in such or such a Place, since he 
is boundless, and cannot be confined in any Place, being 
present at all Times in all ? 


Although the immaterial and incorporeal Divinity cannot 
be circumscribed in Heaven, or Zion, or any other Place, 
God not being in Place, but being Place unto himself, 

22 The Orthodox Confession of the 

yet we are wont to say, God dwelleth there wheresoever he 
hath been pleased more particularly : and the oftenest to 
manifest his Goodness, and show forth his marvellous Works. 
" As in Heaven,'" sayeth St. Damascene (Orth. Fid., c. x. 16), 
" where be the Angels mho perform his Commands, and with 
never-ceasing Praises glorify his Majesty ; On Earth, for there 
incarnate he dwelleth amongst Men : In the holy Church, for 
there, after a peculiar Manner, is his Grace bestowed on the 
Faithful, and his Glory declared. And in like manner is every 
Place said to be his, where is Grace in any Manner revealed.'' 

Question 16. 

"Whereas thou affirmest that it is the Property of God 
only to know all things, hidden and manifest : Whence 
Cometh it that Angels, and among Men the Prophets, have 
also known those Things ? 


God in himself knoweth the most hidden and secret 
Things, and the most concealed Thoughts of both Angels 
and Men ; not only at the Time when they are thought, 
but even before the Worlds were made, according to the 
Scriptures {Eccles. xxiii. 19), The Eyes of the Lord are ten 
thousand Times brighter than the Sun, beholding all the Ways 
of Men, and considering the most secret Parts. And again 
(xlii. 18), The Lord knoweth all that may be known, and he 
beholdeth the Signs of the World. He declareth the Things that 
are past and to come, and revealeth the Steps of hidden Things. 
And ^t.John in the Levelation (li. 2^), L am he which searcheth 
the Reins and Hearts, and T will give unto every one of you 
according to your Works. But when at any Time Angels or 
Men have known what was to come, it hath always been 
from divine Revelation, according to the Scripture {Dan. xi. 
22), He revealed the deep and secret Things. So Elisha knew 
what his Servant Gehazi had privily received on the Way from 
Naaman (2 Kings v. 26). And the Apostle Peter knew what 
has been done by Ananias and Sapphira {Acts v.). And so 
in like manner all the Prophets foreknew the future. 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 23 

Question 17. 
Be there aay more Attributes of God ? 


The divine Attributes are, indeed, numberless : but those 
which, as necessary to Salvation, we have recited, are suf- 
ficient to teach us how we ought to think of God. Do thou, 
therefore, more particularly believe, with a firm and unmov- 
able Faith, that God is One in three Persons, Almighty, 
All-present, All-knowing, Unchangeable, and Eternal. 

Question 18. 

In this Article the Word Creator is used : Is, then, 
every Thing made or created by God ? 


God is, doubtless, the Maker of all Things, risible and 
invisible : Who first from Nothing made the Hosts of 
Heaven only by a Thought; that they might be the chief 
Resounders of his Praise, and that intellectual World, who, 
according to the Grace bestowed on them, see the Glory 
of God, and in perfect Obedience for ever do his Will. 

After which he created this visible and material World out 
of nothing ; and, lastly, he made Man, compounded by an 
immaterial, reasonable Soul, and a material Body: That 
Man, thus made, might be a Manifestation that the same 
God was the Author and Maker of both Worlds, From 
whence Man is not unaptly called a Microcosm, or little 
World, as being in himself an Epitome, or Abridgment, of 
the Universe. 

Question 19. 

As God created the Angels first, I would know what we 
are to think concerning them ? 

24 Tlie Orthodox Confession of the 


The Angels are Spirits, whom God, out of nothing, hath 
produced into Beiug, that they might serve him, and sing 
praise unto him : And, in this World, might assist Men, 
and lead them into his Kingdom. To these is committed the 
Care and Guardianship of Cities, Kingdoms, aud Countries, 
Monasteries, Churches, and both Ecclesiastical aud Secular 
Men. is evident from the Acts of the Apostles, where 
there is an Example hereof {chap. v. 19), The Angel of the 
Lord by Night opened the Prison Boors, and brought them 
forth and said. Go, stand, and speak in the Temple to the 
People all the Words of this Life. And again (xii. 7), And 
behold the Angel of the Lord came upon him, (8) and said unto 
him, Gird thyself, and bind on thy Sandals, cast thy Garment 
about thee, and follow me. And a little after {ver. 11), When 
Peter was come to himself, he said, Norn L know of a Surety 
that the Lord hath sent his Angel, and hath delivered m£ out of 
the Hand of Herod, and from all the Expectation of the People 
of the Jews. In like Manner our Saviour teacheth us, that 
Infants are in their Care, saying {Matth. xviii. 10), I say 
unto you, that, in Heaven, their Angels do always behold the 
Face of my Father which is in Heaven. Also, they present 
our Prayers and Alms, aud other good Works, before the 
divine Majesty. Not that God himself doth not observe 
our Alms, or hear our Prayer, but because they intercede 
for us. And under the first Dispensation, before the Law of 
Moses was delivered, the Angels were the Teachers of the 
Law, and Will of God, unto our Fore-fathers, and led them 
in the Way of Salvation (see Dionysius's Hierarch. Eccl. iv. 
p. 26). And, after the Delivery of the Law they instructed 
Men, and shewed them the Good, as appears at large in 
the holy Scriptures, which relates both the Appearance of 
Angels unto the Prophets, and their shewing them what 
was to come. Thus the Angel warned Joseph to escape the 
bloody Purpose of Herod {Matth. ii. 13), The Angel of the 
Lord appeared to Joseph, saying, Arise, and take the young 
Child, and his Mother, and flee into Egypt, and be thou there 
until L bring thee Word. For Herod will seek the young Child 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 25 

to destroy him. And again, when the same Joseph feared to 
take unto him the blessed Virgin (Matth. i. 20), the Angel 
of the Lord directed him. By the Ministration of Angels 
also the Works of God are declared, as (Luke ii.) when 
Christ was horn at Bethlehem, they told it to the Shepherds. 
Angels also, by the Command of God, attend upon good 
Men, and deliver us from many Dangers, driving away 
the Enemy of our Souls, who doth always most cruelly 
persecute us, whenever the divine Permission suffers him. 
And it is suflEiciently evident that this our celestial Genius 
watches over us, and guards us, from the Scripture which 
saith concerning him that trusted in God alone (Psal. xci. 11), 
He shall give his Angels Charge over thee, to keep thee in all 
thy Ways. 

Question 20. 
Into how many Orders are the Angels distributed ? 


According to the Opinion of St. Dionysius {Eier. Cosiest., 
cap. vi., vii.), they are distinguished into nine Choirs, which 
are again distributed into three Orders. The first Order is 
of those who are nearest to God, as the Thrones, Cherubim, 
and Seraphim. In the second the Powers, Dominions, and 
Virtues. In the third the Angels, Archangels, Principalities, 
and those all disposed in such Order, that all the lower 
Eanks are enlightened, and receive the divine Blessings 
from the higher. These Angels always continue in the Love 
of God, having received this Grace that they should be in- 
capable of falling, because they listened not unto Lucifer, 
when he tempted them to rebel against God, through whose 
Grace only it is that they are thus established, and not 
through their own Strength. And thus far we think it 
sufficient to treat in the small Compass of this Confession, 
concerning the Knowledge of Angels : Wherefore, since it is 
well enough known .that the Angels do help us with their 
Guardianship, and also assist us with their Intercession, 
let us therefore, as we ought, entreat them, that they may 

26 Hie Orthodox Confession of the 

pray to God for us. More especially the Angel who is 
appointed our Guardian and Guide. 

Question 21. 
What are we to think concerning evil Angels ? 


They are all created good by God ; for whatsoever God 
made, it was good; but, through their own Will, they 
became evil, as our Lord testifies of the Chief of the Devils 
{John viii. 44), He was a Murderer from the Beginning, and 
abode not in the Truth, because there is no Truth in him. 
When he speaketh a Lie, he speaketh of his own ; for he is a 
Liar, and the Father of it. These are the Authors and 
Chiefs of all Impiety, and continual Blasphemers of the 
Divine Majesty. These are the Deceivers of Mankind, both 
they and their Instruments, according to the Scripture 
(1 Pet. V. 8), Be sober, be vigilant, because your Adversary, 
the Devil, as a roaring Lion walketh about, seeking whom 
he may devour. Nevertheless, be it known that the Devil 
cannot exercise any Power, or offer any Violence unto any 
Man, or any Thing, unless they are so permitted of God, as 
the Scripture witnesseth {Matth. viii. 31), The Devils besought 
him, saying, Lf thou cast us out, suffer us to go away into the 
Herd of Swine ; and he said unto them. Go. And let every 
one be assured, that it is least of all in their Power to compel 
Man to sin ; they can only tempt, and persuade us, by their 
Instigation and Deceit, to do evil and go astray : For 
Man is endowed with a free Will, which God himself will 
not constrain, or lay not under any Necessity. But foras- 
much as the Devils are condemned unto everlasting Punish- 
ment and Torments, they can never become Partakers of 
the divine Mercy or Grace ; as it is said {Mattk. xxv. 41), 
Depart from me, ye cursed, unto everlasting Fire, prepared 
for the Devil and his Angels. 

Question 22. 
What are we to believe concerning other created Thino-s? 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Qhurch. 27 


As follows : That God, by his Word and Command, hath 
made all Things oi;t of nothing; and, lastly, created Man, 
and appointed him the Heir and Lord of all things under 
Heaven, saying {Gen. i. 26), Let us make Man in our 
Image, and after our Likeness ; and let tkem have Dominion 
over the Fish of the Sea, and over the Fowl of the Air, and 
over the Cattle, and over all the Earth. And the sacred 
Poet {Psal. viii. 7), Thou makest him to have Dominion of 
the Works of thy Hands ; and thou hast put all things in 
Subjection under his Feet ; all Sheep and Oxen, yea, and the 
Beasts of the Field, the Fowls of the Air, and the Fishes of 
the Sea, and whatsoever walketh through the Paths of the Seas. 
And a little before, Thou madest him a little lower than the 
Angels, thou hast crowned him with Glory and Honour. But 
because he disobeyed the Command of God in Paradise, and 
took and ate of the forbidden Fruit, therefore being at once 
deprived of all the Honours and Favours with which he 
had been adorned, whilst he held his Integrity, he was 
driven out of the Mansion, and became such as the Prophet 
hath described him {Psal. xlix. 20), Man that is in honour, 
and understandeth not, is like the Beasts that perish, and is 
become like unto them. And to the same purpose {Gen. 
iii. 19), Dust thou art, and into Dust shalt thou return. 

Question 23. 

What was the State of Innocence of Man, or Purity and 
Freedom from Sin ? 


The State of Innocence and Integrity was twofold, accord- 
ing to St. Basil (Homily on the first of Proverbs, p. 184, Bas). 
'Yh.e first is a voluntary Departure from Sin : as when a Man, 
of his own deliberate Purpose, forsakes what he knows to be 
Sin. T^e oiJ^er- is simply not knowing Sin : as when a Person, 
either by Reason of tender Age, or any other Cause, is with- 
out knowing or committing Evil. Of this last Kind was 

28 The Orthodox Confession of the 

the Innocence of Adam before the Fall, joined with a most 
complete and perfect Rectitude, and innate Justice both of 
Will and Understanding. So that in his Understanding all 
Knowledge was included ; and, in his Will, all Probity and 
Honesty. For inasmuch as Adam had a perfect Knowledge 
of Grod, therefore in knowing of God, he knew all other 
things through God, as appeared in that, when all the 
Creatures came to Adam to be named : For he gave them 
all Names expressive of the several Natures and Disposi- 
tions, which he knew not from any Experience, but from 
that Knowledge of things which, by the Blessing of God, 
he had. And as for his Will, that was, in all things, 
governed by his Reason ; yet so as to retain a perfect 
Freedom, and that it is manifestly in the Power of Man to 
sin, or not to sin, is evident from holy Scripture (Ecclesiast. 
XV. 1 1), &y not thou, It is through the Lord that I fell 
away ; for thou oughtest not to do the things which he hateth. 
Say not thou, He hath caused me to err; for he hath no need 
of the sinful Man. The Lord hateth all Abomination ; and 
they that fear God love it not. He himself made Man from 
the Beginning, and left him in the Hand of his Counsel. If 
thou wilt, thou shall keep the Commandments and Faith by 
doing what pleases him. He hath set Fire and Water before 
thee ; stretch forth thine Hand unto whither thou wilt. Before 
Man is Life and Death, and whether him liketh, shall be given 
him. And a little after (ver. 21), He hath commanded no 
Man to do wickedly ; neither hath he given any Man Licence to 
sin. In such a state of Innocence and Impeccability, like 
the Angels, was Man : But when, by transgressing the 
Commandments, he had sinned, he then came in a State 
of Sin ; and, being expelled from Paradise, he became sub- 
ject to Death, according to that Scripture {Rom. vi. 28), 
The Wages of Sin is Death ; and presently losing the Perfec- 
tion of his Reason and Understanding, his Will became 
prone to evil rather than good. Thus the State of Inno- 
cence and Integrity, by Man tasting of evil, became a State 
of Sin ; and Man, who before was perfect, debased so low 
that now he may well cry out with David {Psal. xxii. 6) 
I am a Worm, and no Man. 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 29 

Question 24. 
Whether all Men are liable for the Sin of Adam ? 


As all Mankind, during the state of Innocence, was in 
Adam ; so in him all Men, falling from what he fell, re- 
mained in a State of Sin. Wherefore Mankind is become, 
not only subject unto Sin, but also, on Account of Sin, 
unto Punishment; wliich, according to the Sentence pro- 
nounced of God, was (Gen. ii. 17), In the Day that thou 
eatest of the Tree, thou shalt surely die. And to this the 
Apostle alludes {Rom. v. 12), Wherefore as by one Man 
Sin entered into the World, and Death by Sin, and so Death 
passed upon all Men, for that all have sinned. So that we 
are conceived in our Mother's Womb, and born in this 
Sin, according to the holy Psalmist (Psal. li. 7), Behold, 
I was shapen in Wickedness, and in Sin hath my Mother con- 
ceived me. This is called parental, or original Sin, first, 
because that, before this, Man was free from all Sin ; 
although the Devil was then corrupt, aud fallen, by whose 
Temptation this parental Sin sprang up in Man ; and Adam 
becoming guilty, we all likewise, who descend from him, be- 
come also guilty. Secondly, this is called original Sin, because 
no Mortal is conceived without this Depravity of Nature. 

Question 25. 

But since God foreknew that Adam would fall, where- 
fore, I pray, did he create him liable to it ? 


God fully foreknew both the Fall of Adam, and the Malice 
of Lucifer, before he created either, and the most minute 
Thoughts and Actions that either of them would think or act ; 
nevertheless the divine Goodness would not suffer itself to be 
overcome by the Wickedness of Man, or the Devil (see St. 
Damascene, ii. 27, and in his Dialogue concerning the Mani- 

30 The Orthodox Confession of the 

chees, pp. 542, 556), but, that it might be the more manifest, 
G-od created the Devil a good Angel, who, of his own free 
Will and Choice, became Evil : as afterwards Man did by his 
Temptation. Now, God so dealt with Mankind, that, in his 
Disobedience, God's Goodness might shine with more glorious 
Brightness, by sending his only Son into this World, who 
might take Flesh of a most unspotted Virgin, by the Opera- 
tion of the Holy Ghost and redeem lost Man ; and receive 
him into his Kingdom, adorned with greater Glory than he 
had before in Paradise, to the eternal Confusion of the Devil. 
Therefore neither ought the Sin of Man hinder, that God 
should not create him. 

Question 26. 

Since, then, God knew all things before they were, did not 
he predestinate them to be good or evil, in such wise that 
they could not be otherwise than they are ? 


God ceridAuly foreknetv all things before they were in Being; 
but he only predestinated Good (St. Damascene, Book ii. chap. 
XXX.), for it were contrary to the divine Gooduess to predes- 
tine Evil. For Evil is no other than Sin ; for, except Sin, 
which is the transgressing of the divine Will and Law, pro- 
perly speaking, there is no such thing as Evil in the World : 
For those which God is pleased to inflict on us for our Sins, 
as Pestilence, War, Sickness, and such like, they are said to 
be evil with regard to us {Basil, Romily ix., that God is not 
the Cause of Evil), because they afflict us with Pain and 
Sorrow, to which we are averse : But, with regard, to God, 
they are not evil, but rather good, as being the Instruments 
of his Correction, whereby he converts us to Eighteousness. 
Therefore when the Scripture saith {Amos iii. 6), Shall there 
be evil in a City, and the Lord hath not done it? there by 
the Word evil is to be understood the just Judgment of God. 
In fine, God, in his Wisdom and Justice, predetermines only 
those things which are entirely out of our Power, with reo-ard 
to their being or not being; and in those good thino-g which 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 31 

are in our Power to be done, he foreknows, but so that his 
Will hindereth not ours, which no way controls the Nature 
of Free-will. 

Question 27. 

What is Free-will? 


Man's Free-will is an absolute, free, and voluntary Choice 
to do Good or Evil, arising from Reason or the reasonable Soul. 
For it is necessary that a Being endued with Eeason, should 
have a Nature joined with a Power over his own Will, which, 
as Reason prompted, he should exercise freely. Now Reason, 
whilst Man remained in the state of Innocence (that is, before 
his Fall) was perfect and uncorrupt; and by his Fall, became 
corrupt ; but his Will (although with regard to the Desire of 
Good and Evil, it remained unaltered), yet, in some things, 
it became more inclined to the Evil, and in others to the 
Good : As saith St. Basil (on Isai. xiv.). Every Man may by 
his Will and Choice become either a good Seed or a bad ; 
according to the Apostle (1 Cor. iv. 15), In Jesus Christ I 
have begotten you through the Gospel. Also St. John (John 
i. 12), As many as received him, to them gave he Power to become 
the sons of God. Wherein the holy Doctor teacheth us, that 
notwithstanding the Will of Man is miserably depraved by 
original Sin ; yet it is the Choice of every one whether he 
will become righteous, and the Child of God ; or wicked, 
and the Child of the Devil. This, I say, is in every one's 
Power, but with the divine Grace assisting him to do Good, 
and withdrawing him from Evil ; yet, nevertheless, so as not 
to interfere with his free Will. 

Question 28. 

Seeing that Man is born in Sin, is the Soul, as well as the 
Body, from the Seed of Adam ? 


The human Body descends from Adam, but the Soul comes 
from God : According to the Scripture {Zach. xii. 1 ), The 

32 The Oi'thodox Confession of the 

Lord which stretcheth forth the Heavens, and layeth the Foun- 
dations of the Earth, and formeth the Spirit of Man within 
him. And agaiu {Eccl. xii. 7), Then shall the Dust return to 
the Earth as it was, and the Spirit shall return to God who 
gave it. For if the Soul were of human Seed, doubtless it 
would die with the Body, and, with that, return to Dust ; but 
we are taught otherwise in the holy Scriptures, where Christ 
says to the Thief on the Cross {Luke xxiii. 43), Verily I say 
unto thee, This Day shall thou be with me in Paradise. The 
Body of the Thief remained on the Cross, but the Soul, as 
being an immortal Spirit, entered with Christ into Paradise : 
Whereas, if it had been of human Extract, it must have 
died with the Body on the Cross. And, indeed, how can we 
otherwise understand these Words of our Lord ? {Matth. xxii. 
31), Have ye not read that which was spoken to you by God, 
saying, I am, the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the 
God of Jacob ? God is not the God of the Dead, but of the Living. 
Which Words cannot be applied but to the Soul, for the 
Bodies of those Fathers had been long ago consumed to 
Dust ; they must, therefore, be meant of the Soul, which, 
as it liveth for ever, so it for ever standeth in the Presence 
of God. Now, if the Soul were of the same Stock with the 
Body, without doubt it must run the same Fate with it, and 
together with it also perish. But the Soul is immitted into 
the Body by God, when he hath fitted and prepared it for 
its Eeception, and is diffused throughout all its Parts, as 
Fire pervades all Parts of the glowing Iron. But chiefly it 
resides (according to St. Damascene, i. xvii.) in the Head 
and Heart, 

Question 29. 

Since God is the Creator of all Things, should he not 
also provide for all Things ? 


He doth provide entirely for all Things : For from the 
smallest to the greatest, he knoweth them all, and every 
Individual which he hath made he particularly taketh Care 
of. For so sayeth our blessed Saviour {Matth. x. 29), Are 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 33 

not two Sparrows sold /or a Farthing ? and ono of them shall 
not fall on the Ground without your FatJier. But the very 
Hairs of your Head are all numbered. The same Provideuce 
David celebrates in the Old Testament {Psal. cxlv. 15), The 
eyes of all wait upon thee, Lord, and thou givest them their Meat 
in due Season. Thou openest thy Hand, and fllest all Things 
living with Plenteov^ness. 

Question 30. 

Are the Words Foreknowledge, Predestination, Provi- 
dence, of the same Signification in Divinity ? 


Foreknowledge, Predestination, and Providence have 
different Signification in Divinity. Providence respects 
Things which are already created, but Foreknowledge and 
Predestination were in God before any Thing was created, 
but in a manner distinct from each other ; Foreknowledge 
being the bare, simple knowing of a future Thing, without 
any determinate Specification of it : that is, not necessarily 
determining that this or that should be. But Predesti- 
nation, joined with Foreknowledge, is a determining the 
Species, or what a Thing must be absolutely ; only,, always 
determining Good, and not Evil. For if Pbedestination were 
to appoint Evil, it would be contrary to the essential Good- 
ness of God : Therefore, in like manner, as we first conceive 
a Thing, and then appoint concerning it, so may we speak 
with Regard to God : First in order is his Foreknowledge ; 
then his Predestination ; and lastly (things being brought 
into actual Being) his Providence. As the Apostle plainly 
teaches {Rom. viii. 29), For whom he did foreknow, he also did 
predestinate ; whom he did predestinate, them he also called ; whom 
he called, them he also justified ; and whom he justified, them he also 
glorified. But this is only to be understood oi Man, for other 
created Beings (except the Angels, who are settled in a State 
of Certainty and Safety) are not the objects of the Divine 
Pkbdestination ; For, as they had no free Will, so they are 


34 The Orthodox Confession of the 

without Imputation whatever they do, being done by the 
Impulse of natural Instinct ; wherefore they are neither 
chastised with Punishment of any kind, nor crowned with 
the Rewards of Glory and Praise. 

Question 31. 

What doth this Article farther teach, concerning God and 
his Creation? 


Whatever your Mind can possibly imagine good, that 
consider as appertaining to God, the supreme Good, as its 
Origin and Source ; and whatever you can figure to your- 
self of Evil, consider as the most opposite and remote from 
God : Not so much as being distant in Place, as being 
diiferent in its very Essence. Of created Things, think 
thus : That they are good, as being produced by an infinitely 
good Maker ; only with this Diiference, that rational Beings, 
who are endued with Understanding and free Will, are bad 
when they depart from God. Not that they were so created, 
but for that they became so by acting contrary to their 
Reason. Of irrational Beings, that as they are without free 
Will, they are in their Nature Good. 

Question 32. 
What is the second Article of the Faith ? 


And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only begotten Son of God, 
begotten of his Father before all Worlds, God of God, Light of 
Light, very God of very God, begotten, not made, being of one Sub- 
stance with the Father, by whom, all Things were made. 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 35 

Question 33. 
What doth this Article of the Creed teach us ? 


Chiefly two things. First, That the Son of God, Jesus 
Christ, is God eternal, of the same proper Nature with his 
Father, and equal to him in Glory and Honour : as he saith 
of himself (John xvii. 5), And now, Father, glorify thou 
me with thine own Self, with the Glory which I had with thee 
lefore the World was. Secondly, That Jesus Christ is the 
Creator, not only of the Things which are made, but also 
of Time itself, in which all things are made (Rei. i. 2), 
£y whom also he hath made the Ages. But concerning 
permanent Beings, the Evangelist saith (John i. 10), The 
World was made by him, and the World knew him not. 

Question 34. 

What mean the words Jesus Christ, which we meet with 
in this Article ? 


Jesus signifies Saviour, as it is interpreted by the Arch- 
angel, who said unto Joseph (Matth. i. 21), She shall bring 
forth a Son, and thou shalt call his Name Jesus, for he shall 
save his People from their Sins. Wherefore this Name can- 
not properly be given unto any one, save only unto our 
Lord and Saviour, who hath set free all Mankind from the 
Bondage of the B&vil. Christ signifies Anointed : for that, 
in the old Law, those who were anointed were called 
Christs : namely, Priests, Kings, and Prophets, into which 
three Offices Christ was anointed ; not after the common 
Manner of others, but after a superior Manner, above all 
others : As the holy Psalmist says (Psal. xlv. 8), Thou hast 
loved Righteousness and hated Iniquity; wherefore God, even 
thy God, hath Anointed thee with the Oil of Gladness, above 
thy Fellows. Wherein is meant, the being anointed with the 

36 ' The Orthodox Confession of the 

Holy Spirit, witli which he was anointed according to the 
Prophet Isaiah (Isai. Ixi. 1), The Spirit of the Lord is 
upon me, because the Lord hath Anointed me, to preach good 
Tidings unto the Meek. Which words Christ applies to him- 
self (Lulce xiv. 21), This Bay is this Scripture fulfilled in 
your Ears. Christ, indeed, was, with a three-fold Excel- 
lency, and extraordinary Majesty, exalted above his Fellows. 
First, as Priest after the Order of Melchizedek, according to 
the Apostle {Heb. v. 10), Called of God an High Priest, after 
the Order of Melchizedek. And again {Heb. ix. 14), He 
calls Christ a Priest, because he offered himself to God and 
the Father : saying, Who through the eternal Spirit, offered 
himself without Spot to God. And again (verse 28), So 
Christ was once offered to bear the Sins of many. Secondly, 
The next Excellency and Majesty of Christ, in his Kingly 
Office, as the Arch-angel, Gabriel, declared when he brought 
tlie heavenly Annunciation to the most chaste Virgin 
(Luke i. 32), saying. The Lord God shall give unto him the 
Throne of his Father David, and he shall reign over the House 
of Jacob for ever, and of his Kingdom there shall be no End. 
The Wise Men, also, when they brought their Offerings, testi- 
fied concerning his Kingdom, saying {Matth. ii. 2), Where 
is he that is born King of the Jews ? And the Title given 
him at his Death confirms this, when it was written (John 
xix. 9), Jesus <9/'Nazaebth, the King of the Jews. Thirdly, 
Concerning his third Office, Moses long before had prophe- 
sied, by inspiration, saying (Deut. xviii. 10), / will raise 
them up a Prophet from among their Brethren, like unto thee. 
This Greatness of our Lord's sufficiently appears from the 
Sanctity of the Doctrine which he taught ; from whence, 
also, his Divinity is sufficiently manifest, and in which we 
are taught everything necessary to Salvation. As himself 
spake (John xvii. 26), / have made thy Name known unto them. 
And a little above (ver. 8), For I have given unto them the 
Words which thou gavest me, and they have received them, and 
have known surely that I come out from thee, and they have 
believed that thou didst send me. But Christ more especially 
exercised this third Office of Prophet when he foretold what 
would come to pass ; which he did, not by Inspiration as 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 37 

other Prophets, but as God himself, of his own knowledge, 
as being God and Man. 

Question 35. 
Why is the Son of God called Only-begotten ? 


That the Son of God is only-begotten is manifest from the 
Scripture (John i. 14), We have seen his Glory, the Glory as 
of the only-begotten of the Father. And again (ver. 18), The 
only-begotten Son which is in the Bosom of the Father. He is 
called only-begotten, because he only is the Son of God by 
Nature : Others, who are sometimes called the Sons of God, 
being so, not by Nature but by Grace, or Adoption, as the 
Faithful and Elect. Which Grace of Adoption, to become 
the Sons of God, is granted them through Jesus Christ, 
according to the Scripture (John i. 12), As many as received 
him, to them gave he Power to become the Sons of God. 

Question 36. 
What mean the Words Light of Light ? 


For the better understanding this, you are to know that 
there be two kinds of Light, namely, created and uncreated. 
Of the created Light the Scripture saith (Gen. i. 3), God said, Let 
there he Light, and there was Light ; and God saw the Light that 
it was good, and God divided the Light from the Darkness. But 
touching that uncreated Light, the Prophet isamA tlius (Isai. x. 
19), The Sun shall he no more thy Light hy Bay, neither for Bright- 
ness shall the Moon give Light unto thee ; hut the Lord shall he an 
everlasting Light, and thy God thy Glory. Thy Sun shall no more 
go down, neither shall thy Moon vnthdraw itself ; for the Lord 
shall he thine everlasting Light. And it is this uncreated Light 
•which is intended in this Place, as more plainly appears 
from the Words which immediately follow, namely, Very 

38 Tlie Onhodox Confession of the 

God of Veey God, Begotten, Not Made. Created Light 
you are to consider as being made out of Nothing ; but the 
begotten Light, or the Son, as springing from the Essence of 
The Fathee. As says the Apostle {Eel. i. 3), Who, heing 
the Brightness of his Glory, and the express Image of his Person, 
and upholding all things hy the Word of his Power, when he had 
hy himself purged our Sins, sat down on the right hand of the 
Majesty on high. 

After the same Manner speaketh he of himself {John viii. 
12), I am the Light of the World; he that followeth me shall not 
walk in Darkness, hut shall have the Light of Life. Further- 
more, it is said Light op Light, because he hath in himself 
the whole Essence of the Father ; like as when one Light is 
kindled by another, it hath in it all the Nature of that other 
Light. Lastly, the Words, By Whom All Things Were 
Made, are thus to be understood : As the Son is equal in 
the same Nature with the Father, so he is equally Creator ; 
and not By Whom, as by a Servant or Instrument, as the 
Scripture teacheth us {John i. 10), He was in the World, and 
the World ivas made through him ; that is, by him. 

Question 37. 
What is the third Article of the Creed? 


Who for us, Men, and for our Salvation, came down from 
Heaven, and was incarnate hy the Holy Ghost of the Virgin Mary, 
and was made Man. 

Question 38. 
What doth this Article of the Creed teach ? 


We are hereby taught four Things : First, That the Son of 
God came down from Heaven into the Womb of a most 
pure Virgin, to save Mankind, as he before had promised. 
Wherefore he thus speaketh concerning himself (John iii. 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 39 

13), No Man hath ascended up to Heaven hut he that came 
down from Heaven, even the Son of Man. Now, he came not. 
down from Heaven by Change of Place ; for, as being very 
God, he fills all Places, and is present in all ; but so it 
seemed good unto his Majesty, to humble himself by taking 
on him the Human Nature. Secondly, This Article teacheth 
us, that our Lord Jesais Christ did verily and indeed take 
on him a real Humanity, and not in appearance only. 
For in that Moment wherein the holy Maid answered the 
Angel, and said. Behold the Handmaid of the Lord, he it 
unto me according unto thy Word, His Body was formed in 
the Virgin's Womb, and he became a perfect Man in every 
Particular, and having a reasonable Soul conjoined with his 
Divinity, being Perfect God and Perfect Man, in one and 
the same Person. And the Immaculate Virgin was saluted, 
and acknowledged to be the Mother of God, as Elizabeth 
said unto her {Luhe i. 43), And whence is this to me, that 
the Mother of my Lord should come unto me ? Furthermore, 
it behoves us to know that the Divinity was not changed 
into the Humanity, neither was the Humanity lost in the 
Divinity, but each Nature remained complete with all its 
Properties, only joined in the same Person ; Sin only, 
which appertained to the Human Nature, being excepted. 

Question 39. 
What is the third Thing taught in this Article ? 


Thirdly, we are hereby taught, that the Incarnation of 
Christ was by the Operation of the Holy Ghost; so that as 
the holy Maid was a Virgin before her Conception, so also 
in conceiving, after she had conceived, and even when she 
brought fourth, she remained a Virgin. For Christ came 
forth of his Mother's Womb after such a Manner as to 
leave unviolated her Virginity and left unbroke that Seal, 
that she might remain a Virgin for ever, 

40 Tlie Orthodox Confession of the 

Question 40. 
What farther is contained in this Article ? 


Concerning the most chaste Virgin, and Mother of God, 
Mary, whom all the Orthodox (as it is their Duty) ought to 
praise and reverence as the Mother of our Lord Jesus Christ, 
or rather as the Mother of God, seeing she was thought 
worthy, by God, to fulfil so great a Mystery. For which 
Reason the Church has composed a Salutation to her partly 
with the Words of the Arch-Angel and holy Elizabeth, and 
partly with a Form of her own : Thus, 

G-od-bearing Virgin ! Hail Mary, full of Grace ! the 
Lord is with thee : Blessed art thou among Women, and blessed 
is the Fruit of thy Womb, for thou hast brought forth the 
Saviour of our Souls. 

Question 41. 
What are we to think concerning this Salutation ? 


First, Thou must believe that this Salutation was orisi- 
nally appointed by God himself: though it was taught unto 
Men by the Arch-Angel Gabriel, who hath not dared to have 
used it, unless he had been so commanded by God. The 
words of the holy Elisabeth were also inspired by the Holy 
Ghost, as is evident from the Evangelist's Account {Luhe 
i. 41), Elizabeth was filled ivith the Holy Ghost, and she spake 
out with a loud Voice, and said, Blessed art thou among Women, 
and blessed is the Fruit of thy Womb. Also the Words which 
the Church hath added are of the Holy Ghost. 

And the Church, by the Authority with which she is 
vested, doth command us, that when we pray, we should 
frequently honour and praise the blessed Virgin with this 

Vatlwlic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 41 

Question 42. 
What is taught us in this Salutation ? 


In this Salutation is contained a Commemoration, that 
the Soil of God became Man, and of the Benefits which we 
receive thereby : And also we learn thereby, that when the 
eternal Word of God, which is without Beginning, came 
down from Heaven he brought not Flesh with him, but 
received it in the Womb of the most holy Virgin, formed of 
her purest Blood, by the Operation of the Holy Spirit ; so that 
he was born of her as of his proper Parent. And this we must 
inost truly and firmly believe ; for the Church doth condemn, 
as Heretics, all such as hold that the Saviour came down 
from Heaven already clothed with Flesh, wherewith he passed 
through the holy Virgin as through a Door {Cyril of Jeru- 
salem his Catechis. xiii.). We are, farthermore, taught therein 
to call the blessed Virgin God-bearing, according to the human 
Nature of Christ ; and that Christ, who was born of her, 
was perfect God, and perfect Man. Moreover, this Saluta- 
tion, iu calling the Virgin full of Grace, teacheth us, that as 
she is the Mother of God, she is made more abundantly a 
Partaker of the divine Grace than any created Being : 
Wherefore the Church rightly extolleth her above the 
Cherubim and Seraphim, For she, far above all the Choirs 
of Angels, is at the right Hand of her Son, with all Honour 
and Glory, according to David (Psal. xlv. 10), Upon thy 
Right Hand did stand, the Queen, in a Vesture of Gold wrought 
about with divers Colours. Every orthodox Christian ought 
to repeat this Salutation with the utmost Eeverence, and 
implore the Intercession of the Virgin ; for the Prayer of 
the Mother availeth much with the Son. And whosoever 
would be a devout Honourer of the Virgin, let him (alway 
standing, not sitting) repeat the Hymn called Akathiston, 
and other Supplication and Hymns, which the Church hath 
composed in Honour of the Mother of God. 

42 The Orthodox Confession of the 

Question 43. 
What is the fourth Article of the Creed ? 


Chiefly six Things. First, That the Word verily, and 
indeed, suffered on the Cross for our Sakes, and truly and 
really died, according to that same Humanity which he 
received from the Virgin Mary : As is manifest from the 
holy Book (Luke xxiii. 46), And when Jesus had cried with 
a loud Voice, he said. Father, into thy Hands I commend my 
Spirit ; and having said thus he gave up the Ghost. And 
that he truly poured out his precious Blood for us, where- 
with he redeemed us, as the Apostle witnesseth {Eph. i. 
5, 7), Who hath predestinated us unto the Adoption of Chil- 
dren, hy Jesus Christ, in whom we have Redemption through 
his Blood, the Forgiveness of Sins according to the Riches of his 

Question 45. 
What is the second Thing contained in this Article ? 


That Christ suffered the Punishment of us Sinners, hav- 
ing no Sin in Himself: as the Apostle St. Peter testifieth 
(1 Pet. i. 18), Forasmuch as ye know ye were not redeemed 
with corruptible Things, as Silver and Gold, from your vain 
Conversation taught you ly your Fathers, hut with the precious 
Blood of Christ, as of a Lanib, without Blemish and without 
Spot. In like manner doth John the Baptist bear Witness, 
that Jesus, who was perfectly innocent, and free from any 
Stain of Sin, suffered for our Sins ; For thus saith he {John 
i. 29), Behold the Lamb of God who taketh away the Sin of the 
World. And this was voluntarily, and of his own free 
Will, as himself saith (John x. 18), / have Power to lay 
down my Life, and I have Potver to take it again. 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 43 

Question 46. 
What is the third Thing taught ? 


That Christ suffered on the Cross, according to his human 
Nature, not according to his Divinity. For his divine Nature 
suffered not : that was not fastened to the Cross, that did 
not give its Face to be spit upon, nor to the Smiters : that 
died not. And that Christ was crucified only in the Flesh 
the Apostle manifesteth, saying ( Coloss. i. 21, 22), JVow hath he 
reconciled in the Body of his Flesh through Death, to present you 
holy, and unblameable, and unreprovahle before him. Never- 
theless his divine Nature, having taken to it the Humanity, 
was never again separated from it. Not in the Time of his 
Passion and Death upon the Cross ; not even in Death ; 
although his Soul was separated from his Body, yet did not 
his Divinity ever depart from his Body or his Soul. So that 
in Death itself Christ still continued one and the Same 

Question 47. 

What is the fourth Part contained in this Article ? 


That the Death of Christ was abundantly more excelled, 
and of far greater Benefits, than could be the Death of all 
other Men : For these especial Reasons. First, Because of 
the heavy Burden of our Sins, as saitli the Prophet (Isai. 
liii. 4), ITe hath home our Griefs and carried our Sorrows, yet 
we did esteem him stricken, smitten of God, and afflicted. But 
he was wounded for our Transgressions, he was bruised for our 
Iniquities. Also the Prophet Jeremiah, speaking in the Per- 
son of Christ {Lament, i. 12), Is it nothing to you, all ye that 
pass by ? Behold and see if there he any Sorrow like unto my 
Sorroro, which is done unto me. Secondly, For that on the 
Cross he fulfilled his priestly Office, offering himself to God 
and the Father, for the Redemption of Mankind : as the 
Apostle speaks concerning him (1 Tim. xi. 6), Who gave 
himself a Ransom for all. And again {Eph. v. 2), Christ loved 

44 The Orthodox Confession of the 

us, and hath given himself for us, an Offering and a Sacrifice 
to God, for a sweet- smelling Savour. Also in another Place 
(Ron. V. 8), While we were yet Sinners, Christ died for us. 
Thirdly, Because on the Cross he completed the Eeconcilia- 
tion which he had undertaken between God and Man ; as 
the Apostle just mentioned declareth (Coloss. i. 20 and ii. 14), 
By him to reconcile all Things unto himself, having made Peace 
through the Blood of his Cross ; Blotting out the Handroriting 
of Ordinances that was against us ; which was contrary to us ; 
and took it out of the Way, nailing it to the Cross. 

Question 48. 
What is i\iQ fifth Thing contained in this Article? 


Concerning the Burial of our Lord Jesus Christ, as he was 
really and truly fastened to the Cross, and underwent the 
most grievous Torments, so was he verily and indeed dead, 
and buried in an honourable Place ; which came to pass for 
this End, that from henceforth none should doubt of the 
real Resurrection of Christ from the Dead. For had he 
been buried in an obscure Bye-Place, and, as we say, in a 
Corner, it would have given good Occasion to the Jews to 
have opposed our Lord with their Slanders : Wherefore, that 
the glorious Eesurrection of Christ might be more unques- 
tionable and glorious, the Jews, as if they had been directed by 
Providence, go to Pilate, and say unto him (Matth. xxvii. 64), 
Command therefore that the Sepulchre he tnade sure until the 
third Bay: and Pilate said unto them, Ye have a Watch; go 
your Way, make it as sure as ye can. So they went and made 
the Sepulchre sure, sealing the Stone, and setting a Watch. 
Which Watch of the Jews afforded a most certain and 
manifest Proof of Christ's Resurrection ; being struck with 
great Dread at the Time it was come to pass, as the Scrip- 
ture informs us {Matth. xxxviii. 2), And behold there was a 
great Earthquake, for the Angel of the Lord descended from 
Heaven, and came and rolled lack the Stone from the Door, and 
sat upon it ; and for Fear of him the Keepers did shake and 
became as dead Men. Who afterwctrds (ver. 11) going into the 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 45 

City, told the chief Priests all that had happened. Being, as it 
were, constrained to testify what the Angel had spoken to 
the Women, saying (ver. 5), I know that ye seek Jesus that ivas 
crucified. He is not here, for he is risen, as he said; come and 
see the Place where the Lord lay, and go quickly, and tell his 
Disciples that he is risen from the Dead. For this Cause, there- 
fore, it was that the Sepulchre of our Lord should be in a 
Place of Honour, that it might be clear to all that his 
Disciples did not steal him away, and bury him in an 
unknown obscure Place, as the perverse Jews gave out, 
having corrupted the Keepers with large Money. But this 
empty Suspicion was fully confuted by the Tomb itself, 
wherein our Lord had been buried, and by the sealing of the 
Stone, and by the Guard which the Jews had set. Beside 
Joseph and Nicodemus were Men of great Honour and Account 
in their Nation. Lastly, The precious Linen wherein the dead 
Body of our Lord had been wrapped, and the Napkin which 
was about his Head, remained folded up in the Sepulchre 
after he was arisen ; all which sufficiently proved that 
his Body had not been secretly conveyed away by the Dis- 
ciples, but was indeed returned to Life. To this it 
deserves to be added, that according to the holy Prophecies 
it was of Necessity that our Lord's Sepulchre should be 
honourable, as it is, and has been : for so sayeth the Prophet 
Isaiah (ch. xi. 10), And his Best shall he glorious. Now, 
whosoever visiteth this Sepulchre, in Faith and Love of 
Christ, he shall obtain Pardon of many Sins ; coming 
through that, in his Mind, unto Christ himself. 

Question 49. 

From what hath been said, I am become desirous to 
know in what Place the Soul of Christ remained after its 
departure from his Body, and before his Resurrection. 


The Soul of Christ, although separated from his Body, 
yet remained joined to his Divinitj^ and together with it 
went down to Hell: although no mention is made thereof in 

46 The Orthodox Confession of the 

this Article, yet we are sufficiently certified that it is so by 
many Hymns of the Church on this Subject, which teach 
that Christ, together with his Soul and his Divinity, de- 
scended into Hell. As this Troparion, or Hymn of the 
Church, particularly setteth forth — 

With thy Body in the Tomb. 

With thy Soul in Hell. 

In Paradise with tlie, Thief, 

And on thy Throne with the Father and the Holy Ghost, 

Thou wast God, Christ ! 

Filling all things, thyself unbounded. 

And having delivered from thence the Souls of the holy 
Fathers, he led them into Paradise, together with the Thief 
who had believed on him when he was crucified. 

Question 50. 
What is the sixth Thing contained in this Article ? 


This Article, by making mention of the Cross on which 
Christ died and wrought the great Work of our Salvation, 
prompts us to comment something concerning it : Of which 
the Apostle St. Paul thus speaketh (Galat. vi. 14), God for- 
bid that I should glory save in the Cross of our Lord Jesus 
Christ : whereby the World is crucified unto me, and I unto the 
World. And again (1 Cor. i. 18), The preaching of the Cross 
is to them that perish foolishness ; but unto us which are 
saved it is the Power of God. For many and great Reasons, 
therefore, the Cross is venerable unto us, as the peculiar 
Sign of Christ, on which a wonderful Power is bestowed of 
putting evil Spirits to flight: Forasmuch as it was anointed 
with the Blood of the Son of God, who breathed out his 
Soul thereon. To this Purpose hear St. Cyril, Bishop of 
Jerusalem (Catechis. xiii.), " When we sign ourselves with the 
venerable Sign of the Cross, the Devil then being mindful that 
Christ was nailed to the Cross for our Salvation, and for the 
Destruction of his hellish Power, can rw longer he present nor 
withstand the Power of the Cross ; but he fleeth from us and 

Catholic mid Apostolic Eastern Church. 47 

ceaseth to tempt iis, more especially as we usually call upon the 
Name of our Saviour Christ at the same Time." Wherefore it 
is necessary that we should frequently use to sign ourselves 
with this holy Sign ; forasmuch as we perceive ourselves too 
commonly beset with the Temptations of the Devil, which we 
cannot otherwise drive away than by the Sign of the Life- 
giving Cross, and seriously calling upon the Name of Jesus 
Christ. And by this, we not only drive away the Insults of 
the Spirits of Darkness from our Persons, but also from 
whatever belongeth unto us ; from our Meat and our Drink, 
from our Utensils, and everything appertaining to us. Where- 
fore St. Cyril, in the Place before mentioned, saith farther : 
" Bless thyself with the venerable Sign of the Cross, when thou 
eatest and when thou drinhest ; when thou standest and when 
thou sittest ; when thou speaketh and when thou walkest. Begin 
not any Business or Employment without first making this 
reverend Sign; in thine House or on the Way, in the Day or 
in the Night, and in all Places." 

Question 51. 

After what manner ought we to form the Sign of the vener- 
able and Life-giving Cross? 


After this Manner ; first, with thy Thumb and two 
Fingers touch thy Forehead, saying, *' In the Name of the 
Father ; " then in the same Manner touch thy Breast, saying, 
''and of the Son;" then touch thy right Shoulder, saying, 
" and of the Holy Ghost : " And, lastly, complete the Sign of the 
Cross, by touching thy left Shoulder, saying " Amen." Thou 
mayest, also, when thou Grossest thyself, say thus, "Lord 
Jesus Christ, Son of God, have Mercy on one a Sinner. Amen!' 

Question 52. 
What is the fifth Article of the Faith ? 

Who arose the third Day from the Dead, according to the 

48 The Orthodox Confession of the 

Question 53. 
What are we taught by this Article of the Faith ? 


Two Things. First, That our Lord, Jesus Christ, returned to 
Life by the Power of his Divinity {Lvke xxiv. 7), Asit was 
written of him in the Prophets and Psalms. And, Secondly, 
That he arose in that sauie individual Body wherewith he 
was born, and died. 

Question 54. 

According to what Scripture did it so become Christ to 
suifer and to die, and also to rise on the third Day ? 


The holy Scriptures are twofold ; of the Old and of the 
New Testament. The former foretold that Christ should 
come, aud also the Manner in which he should redeem Man- 
kind ; namely, by suffering, dying and arising again from 
the Dead : Therefore, according to those Scriptures, all these 
Things were to be fulfilled by Christ. And by the latter, 
namely, the New Testament, it is manifestly confirmed, that 
Christ did fulfil all these Things, and that he came into 
the World for that very Cause whereof it was afore written, 
As he sayeth of himself {Mark xiv. 21), The Son of Man goeth 
indeed, as it is written of him. And again, after his Resurrec- 
tion, to his two Disciples as they were journeying {Luke xxiv. 
26), Ought not Christ to have suffered these things, and to 
enter into his Glory? And beginning at Moses, and all the 
Prophets, he expounded unto them, in all the Scriptures, the 
Things concerning himself. Now that the Old Testament 
ought to liave full and satisfactory Credit and Authority 
with us, the Apostle testifies, saying of it (2 Pet. i. 19), T^e 
have also a more sure Word of Prophecy, whereunto ye do well 
that ye take heed, as unto a Light that shineth in a dark Place, 
until the Day Dawn, and the Day-Star arise in your Hearts. 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Cliurch. 49 

Farthermore, all the Evangelists confirm unto us that these 
Things were done exactly according to those Scriptures. The 
Apostle also (1 Cor.xv. 3), Christ died /or us, according to 
the Scriptures ; and that he was buried, and that he arose again 
the Third Day, according to the Scriptures. And that he was 
seen of Cephas, and then of the twelve. After that he was seen 
of above five hundred Brethren at once, of whom the greater 
Part remain unto this present, but some have fallen asleep. 
After that he was seen of James, then of all the Apostles. And 
last of all, he was seen of me also, as of one born out of due 
Time. The Prophet Jonas had also, of old, beautifully repre- 
sented the Resurrection of Christ ; as our Lord Jesus Christ 
applied it to himself when he spake to the Jews, saying 
(Matth. xii. 39), An evil and adulterous Generation seeketh 
after a Sign, and there shall no Sign be given unto it but the 
Sign of the Prophet Jonas. For as Jonas was three Days and 
three Nights in the Whalers Belly, so shall the Son of Man be 
three Days and three Nights in the Heart of the Earth. 

Question 55. 
What is the sixth Article of the Faith ? 


Who ascended into Heaven, and sitteth at the Bight Hand of 
the Father. 

Question 56. 
What are we taught by this Article ? 


' Four Doctrines. First, That Christ ascended into Heaven, 
and sat down, with Glory and Honour, at the Right Hand 
of God ; with that very same Body in which he had truly 
and really suffered the Torments of the Cross, and with 
which he had arisen from the Dead. Secondly, That he 
ascended into Heaven only as Man, for as God he was 
always there, and in all Places. Thirdly, That Christ never 


50 The Oriliodox Confession of the 

after put off the human Nature which he had taken upon 
him of the blessed Virgin, and that he will hereafter come 
again to Judgment therewith ; as the Angels spake to the 
Apostles {Acts i. 11), This same Jesus which is taken up from 
you into Heaven shall so come in like Manner as ye have seen 
him go into Heaven. Fourthly, We are hereby taugtt the 
Body of Christ is in Heaven only, and not on the Earth, 
after the Manner it used to be whilst he conversed among 
us ; but only after a * sacramental manner ; whereby, in the 
holy Supper, the same Son of God, God and Man, is present 
on Earth \ By a change of Substance, for the Substance of the 
Bread is % changed into the ^Substance of his most holy Body, 
and the Suhstance of the Wine into the Substance of his most 
precious Blood. Wherefore we ought to glorify and rever- 
ence the holy Eucharist as our Saviour Jesus himself. 

Question 57. 
What is the seventh Article of the Faith? 


He shall come again with Glory to judge both the Quick and the 
Dead, whose Kingdom shall have no End. 

Question 58. 
What doth this Article teach us ? 


Three Things. First, That Christ will come again, to judge 
the Living and the Dead ; as he sayeth himself {Matth. xxv. 
31), When the Son of Man shall come in his Glory, and all the 
holy Angels with him. And this coming will be with swiftness 
{Matth. xxiv. 27), As the Lightning cometh out of the East, and 
shineth even unto the West, so shall also the coming of the Son of 
Man be ; (ver. 36), But of that Bay and hour knoweth no Man ; 
no, not the Angels. But first it must be that these things 

* ixvaTTipiuS-ri. + Kara neTovaiuKTw. t /lerapdWeTat. § els Tr)v Oialav. 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 51 

happen (ver. 14), namely, That the Gospel be preached imto 
all Nations ; that Antichrist come ; that there be horrid and 
inhuman Wars, Famine, and Pestilence ; and the like. In 
a Word, that there be many and great Afflictions, according 
to the Word of the Lord (ver. 21), Then shall he great 
Tribtdation, such as was not since the Beginning of the World to 
this Time, no, nor ever shall he after. Of this Judgment the 
Apostle thus plainly teacheth (2 Tim. iv. 1), / charge thee, 
therefore, before God, and the Lord Jesus Christ, who shall judge 
the Quick and the Bead, at his appearing and his Kingdom. 

Question 59. 
What is the second Doctrine contained in this Article ? 


That in this last Judgment all Men are to give an Account 
of all their Thoughts, Words, and Works, as the Scripture 
testifies {ilatth. xii. 36), I say unto you, that every idle Word 
that Men shall speak, they shall give an Account thereof in the 
Bay of Judgment. And so the Apostle (1 Cor. iv. 5), There- 
forejudge nothing before the Time until the Lord come, who both 
will bring to Light the hidden Things of Darkness, and will make 
manifest the Counsels of the Hearts; and then shall every Man 
have his Praise of God. 

Question 60. 
What is the third Thing taught in this Article ? 


That in that Day every one shall receive a full and 
Everlasting Reward, according to his Merit ; some receiving 
this Sentence {Matth. xxv. 34), Come, ye blessed of my 
Father, inherit the Kingdom prepared for you from the Begin- 
ning of the World. And to others shall be pronounced this 
afflicting Sound (ver. 41), Depart from me, ye cursed, into 
Everlasting Fire, prepared for the Devil and his Angels; 
{Mark ix. 44), Where their Worm dieth not, and the Fire is 
not quenched. 

52 The Orthodox Confession of the 

Question 61. 

In that Day, peradventure, all Men in general must give 
an Account of their Actions and Affairs ; but I would know 
whether every one, at his Departure from this Life, giveth 
an Account of his Life, and answers, as it were, in a parti- 
cular Judgment. 


The Judgment of that Day will not be by inquiring after 
every minute Circumstance, for all things are known and 
manifest unto God ; and as every one, at the Time of his 
Death, is fully conscious to himself of all his Faults, so 
does every one, after death, very well know what is to be 
the Rewards of his Deserts ; For as his Deeds are manifest, 
so is the Will of God concerning them also manifest. As 
Gi'egory the Divine sayeth (Funeral Oration of his Brother 
CcBsarius), " I am induced to believe, that, as wise Men say, the 
good and acceptable Soul, when its espousal with the Body is dis- 
solved, enjoying with the Powers of its Mind the Good which it 
possesses {for that which before cloiided it with Darkness being 
now purged away, or laid aside, or what no Words can express), 
is enraptured, and exults with a most singular and transporting 
Joy, and flies rejoicing to its Lord (whilst it escapes from this 
Life, as from a loathsome Prison, and spurns under its Feet the 
Shackles which fettered before the Wings of its Mind) to taste, as 
in Imagination, the Bliss in store for it. 

"And when, not long after, it again receives its well-known 
Body from the Earth, which first supplied, and now had kept 
it safe in store; after a Manner only known to God, who first 
joined, and afterwards separated them; with that Body, wherein 
it had afore lived the heavenly Life, it enters now united, to 
possess the Heritage of celestial Glory," 

In like manner may be considered the wicked Souls ; 
namely, that they are immediately sensible of the Torments 
that await them, Howbeit, neither the Just nor the Wicked 
receive the full Recompense of their Deeds before the final 
Judgment ; nor are they all in one State, nor limited to one 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 53 

Place. -Now, from hence it is clear enough that this could 
not be, before the general Judgment, without some kind of 
(as it were) particular Judgment : And such a particular 
Judgment as this there is only. When, therefore, we say 
that God does not require an exact Account of our Lives, 
it is to be understood that we mean, not according to the 
Forms and Weakness of human Tribunals. 

Question 62. 

Are not all the Souls of the Saints placed in the same 
Degree of Happiness after Death ? 


As the Souls do not all go out of this Life in the same 
Degree of divine Grace, so neither after their Departure are 
they in one and the same Degree of Happiness. This we 
learn from Christ himself {John xiv. 2), In my Father's 
House are many Mansions. And elsewhere {Luke vii. 47), 
Her sins, which are many, are forgiven ; for she loved much : 
But to whom little is forgiven, the same loveth little. To the 
same Purpose speaks the Apostle {Bom. xi. 6), WTio will 
render unto every Man according to his Deeds. 

Question 63. 

What are we to think concerning those who depart 
hence under the Wrath of God ? 


Of these, some, after the last Judgment, will be 
punished with greater, some with lesser Torments ; but both 
will be without End, As the Scripture declareth {Zuke 
xii. 47), That Servant that knew his Lord's Will, and pre- 
pared not himself, neither did accordiny to his Will, shall be 
beaten with many Stripes: But he that knew not, and did 
commit things worthy of Stripes, shall he beaten with few Stripes. 

54 The Orthodox Confession of (lie 

Question 64. 

Do not some die, so as to be in a medium between the 
Blessed and the Damned ? 


Of these there be not any ; nevertheless, it is certain 

that many Sinners are freed from the Chains of Hades; 

not by their own Eepentance or Confession, as the Scripture 

.saith {Psal. vi. 5), In the Pit who shall give Thanhs unto thee ? 

And elsewhere (Psal. cxv. 17), The Dead praise not thee, 

Lord ; neither all them that go down into the Pit ; but for 

the good Works and Alms of the Living, and for the Prayers 

of the Church, made in their Behalf; but chiefly for the 

sake of the unbloody Sacrifice (the Liturgy) which the 

Church daily offers up for the Living and the Dead ; in like 

manner as Christ also died for both. But the Souls of such 

are by no means to be delivered by their own Works ; as 

Theaphylact, treating on these Words of Christ, in the sixth 

Chapter of Luhe, To whom Power is given of forgiving Sins on 

I!arth,te&chet\i; saying, "Observe, it is said on Earth; For 

so long as we continue on Earth we can wipe out our Sins, hut 

after we leave this Earth loe are no more able of ourselves to 

cancel our Sins by our Confessions. The 'Boors then are 

shut.^ " And again, on the Words of Matthew (chap. xxii. 

13), Bind him Hand and Foot, by which the active Faculties 

of the Soul are meant, he says. In this Life we may labour 

and endeavour, but afterwards the active Faculties of the Soul 

are bound, nor can we any more do oxoght atonement for our 

Offences. And farther, on the 25th Cliapter of the same 

Gospel, he says, " There is no more Time for Repentance and 

good Works after this Life." From all which it is clear, 

that after its separation the Soul can no more perform 

Penance, nor do any other work whereby it might be freed 

from the Chains of Hades. Therefore, only the Sacrifices, 

the Prayers and Alms, which are performed by the Living, 

for their sakes, do comfort and greatly benefit the Souls, and 

free them from the Bonds of Hades. 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 55 

Question 65. 

What, then, are we to think concerning the Alms and good 
Works, which are performed for the Comfort of the Departed ? 


Theophylact, expounding these Words of Christ {Luke xii. 
5), Fear him who hath Power to cast into Hell, thus treats 
of this Matter, " Observe, my Brethren, Christ saith not, fear him 
who, after he hath killed, casteth into Hell, tut who hath Power 
to cast into Hell. For he casteth not all who died in their Sins 
into Hell, hut it is in the Hand of God to do so, and also to 
pardon them. ' This, I say, concerning the pious Offerings and 
Intercessions which are made for the Good of those that sleep. 
For these things are of no small Benefits, even to those who depart 
hence in the most grievous State of Sin. God doth not, then, cast 
the Guilty into Hell when he hath killed them; hut he hath 
Power to cast them into Hell. Wherefore let us not cease to 
endeavour, again and again, hy our Alms and our Intercessions, 
to implore his Favour, who, having the Power to cast into Hell, 
doth not always exert it ; hut hath, also, Power to indulge with 
Pardon: " 

We are therefore taught by the holy Scripture, and the 
Exposition of this Father, that we ought, by all means, to 
pray for the Departed, to offer the unbloody Sacrifice for 
them, and to dispense our Alms with a liberal Hand ; seeing 
they can no more perform these good Works for themselves. 

Question 66. 
What are we to think of the Fire of Purgatory ? 


It is nowhere taught in the holy Scriptures tliat there is 
any temporary Punishment, whereby the Soul, after Death, 

56 The OriJiodox Confession of the 

may be purged. On the contrary, the Church, in the second 
Council of Constantinople, did condemn Origen for this very 
Opinion. Moreover, it is evident that the Soul, when once 
departed, cannot again become a partaker of the Sacraments 
of the Church. Could this be, that the Soul could satisfy 
there for Sins committed in this Life, then, by like Reason, 
it might partake of the Sacraments of Penance there ; which 
being contrary to orthodox Doctrine, the Church rightly and 
wisely offers the unbloody Sacrifice for those Souls, together 
with her Prayers, that they may be forgiven those things 
wherein they had offended, whilst they continued in this 
Life : And not that they might be delivered from any Pun- 
ishment that they were then suffering for a Time only. Our 
Church doth not admit or approve of such Fables as some 
Men have fancied concerning the State of Souls after Death ; 
as that they are tormented in Pits and Waters, and with 
sharp Prongs, when they are snatched away by Death before 
they can have done sufiicient Penance for their Faults. 

Question 67. 

What Place is particularly appointed for those Souls that 
go hence in a State of Grace and Favour with God ? 


Those Souls of Men which depart hence in Favour with 
God, and have wiped out their Sins by Eepentance, have 
their Place in the Hand of God. As saith the holy Scrips 
ture (Wisd. iii. 1), The Souls of the Righteous are in the Hand 
of God, and there shall no torments touch them. Their place 
is also named Paradise, as our Lord Christ called it to the 
Thief on the Cross {Luhe xxiii. 43), Verily I say unto thee, 
This Day shalt tlwu he with me in Paradise. It is also called 
Abraham's Bosom; as in Luke xvi. 22, And it came to pass 
that the Beggar died, and was carried ly the Angels into Abra- 
ham's Bosom. Sometimes it is named the Kingdom of Heaven, 
as it was by our Lord {Matth. xiii. 11), I say unto you, that 
many shall come from the East and West, and shall sit down 

Catholic and Apostolic JEastern Church. 57 

with Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob in the Kingdom of 
Heaven. By whichsoever of these three Names that we 
have mentioned any one shall call the Eeceptacle of 
righteous Souls, he will not err ; provided that he believes 
and understands thus much, that they enjoy the Favour of 
Grod, and are in his heavenly Kingdom, and, as the Hymns 
of the Church mention, in Heaven. 

Question 68. 

Where is the Place of those Souls who leave their Bodies 
under the Displeasure of God ? 


Many Names are given to that Place : It is called Hell, 
into which the Devil, when thrust out of Heaven, was 
driven ; as the Prophet testifies {Isai. xiv. 14), / will as- 
cend above the Heights of the Clouds; I will be like the Most 
High, saith Satan. Yet thou shalt be brought down to Hell, 
to the Sides of the Pit. Again, it is called Everlasting Fire ; 
as the Scripture saith (Matth. xxv. 41), Depart from me, ye 
cursed, into Everlasting Fire, prepared for the Devil and his 
Angels. Likewise it is named Outer Darkness (ver. 30), 
Cast ye the unprofitable Servant into Outer Darkness ; there shall 
he wailing and gnashing of Teeth. It is called by many other 
Names, all of which mean a Place of Condemnation and 
the Wrath of God. To this Place go down the Souls of all 
those who die at Enmity with God, and under his Wrath ; 
and here are they damned. This, then, is to be believed by 
the Faithful, That as the Souls of the Righteous, although 
received into Heaven, do not receive the full and perfect 
Crown of Glory before the last Judgment, so neither do the 
Souls of the Damned feel and suffer the full Measure and 
Weight of the Punishments before that Time. But after 
that final and decisive Judgment, the Souls of all, rejoined 
to their Bodies, will be crowned with Glory or overwhelmed 
with Torments. 

58 The Orthodox Confession of the 

Question 69. 
What is the eighth Article of the Faith ? 


/ believe in the Holy Ghost, the Lord and Giver of Life, who 
proceedeth from the Father, [who with the Father and the Son 
together is worshipped and glorified, who spake hy the Prophets. 

Question 70. 
What doth this Article teach ? 


Three Things. First, That the Holy Ghost is God, of the 
same Substance with the Father and the Son ; as these 
Words of the Apostle do manifest (1 Cor. xii. 4), There 
are Diversity of Gifts, hut the same Spirit : And Difference of 
Administrations, hut the same Lord : And there are Diver- 
sities of Operations, hut it is the same God that worheth in all. 
And again (2 Cor. xiii. 14), The Grace of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, and the Love of God and the Communion of the Holy 
Ghost, he ivith you all. Now, whereas, in these Texts, the 
Holy Ghost is sometimes first named, and sometimes the 
Son, it is because all the three Persons are of the same 
Substance and Partakers of equal Honours. And not 
because the Son differeth aught from the Holy Ghost, or 
the Holy Ghost from the Son, in their Essence (to say which 
would be Blasphemy) ; but because, as we said before, they 
are both of the same Essence and Glory ; and also because 
the Son and the Holt Ghost both of them immediately 
and equally have their Origin of the Father ; the Son as 
being begotten, and the Holy Ghost as proceeding. Accord- 
ing to what Peter declareth to Ananias in Acts (ver. 3), 
Why hath Satan filled thine Heart to lie to the Holy Ghost ? 
And presently after he concludes (ver. 4), Thou hast not 
lied unto Men, hut unto God. The Holy Ghost is, therefore, 
certainly true and very God. 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 59 

Question 71. 
What is the second Thing taught in this Article ? 


That the IToly Ghost proceedeth from the Father Only, as 
from the Fountain and Original of his Divinity; as our 
Saviour himself teacheth us (John xv. 26), JVhen the Com- 
forter is come, whom I will send unto you from the Father ; the 
Spirit of Truth, which Proceedeth from the Father. The 
same Doctrine St. Athanasius lays down in his Creed, " The 
Holy Ghost is of the Father, not made, nor created, nor begotten, 
but proceeding." And elsewhere in his works (Holy Questions, 
vol. ii. 43, &c.), " God and Father, he only is the Cause of 
the other two, and unbegotten. ' The Son, begotten, and sprung 
from the Father only, the Cause of his Origin. The Holy Ghost 
himself also springs and proceeds only from the Father, as his 
Cause, and by the Son was sent into the World." And Gregory 
the Divine sayeth (Homily V. of Divinity and of the Holy Ghost), 
" The Holy Ghost, who proceedeth from the Father, is uncreated, 
as being Proceeding ; as being unbegotten, he is not the Son ; but 
as being between unbegotten and begotten, he is God." We have 
already treated of this Matter at large in the First Article. 
Let it, therefore, suffice us that we hold what Christ himself 
taught ; what the Catholic and Orthodox Eastern Church 
believeth and altogether professed in the Second General 
Council ; and let us hold the Faith without Addition, and 
from the Son, as the Church hath commanded. Nay, not 
only the Orthodox and Catholic Eastern Church hath 
passed a heavy censure on those who add these Words, 
but also the Western Roman Church. This is evident from 
the two Silver Tables, on one of which the Creed was 
engraved in Greek, and on the other in Latin, without this 
Addition, And from The Son ; which Tables were, by order 
of Leo the Third, Pope of Boine, affixt up in St. Peters 
Church, in the Year of our Lord 809, as Baronius confesseth. 
Whosoever, therefore, continues firm and constant in this 
Faith, he may have undoubting Hope of his Salvation, as 
one who turueth not aside from the Doctrine of the Church. 

60 The Orthodox Confession of the 

Question 72. 
What is the third Thing taught m this Article ? 


That the Holy Ghost is the real Author of the holy 
Scripture, both of the Old and of the New Testaments j and 
wrote them hy the Hands of divers Servants : Wherefore 
the Scriptures of the Old Testament, and also of the New, 
is the Doctrine of the Holy Ghost. Wherefore thou 
oughtest to believe, that whatsoever the holy Fathers have 
decreed, in general and particular orthodox Councils, where- 
soever they were held, is taught of the Holy Ghost. The 
holy Apostles speak in their Synod (Acts xv. 28), It seemed 
good to the Holy Ghost, and to us : After whose Example other 
orthodox Councils have, in the same Style, concluded their 

Question 73. 

What, and how many, are the Gifts of the Holy Spirit ? 


Seven; of which the holy Scripture speaketh thus (Bev. 
iv. 5), And there were seven Lamps of Fire burning before the 
Throne, which are the seven Spirits of God. Now, these Gifts 
of the Spirit, or, to speak more properly, the Holy Spirit 
himself was in Christ after a more abundant and a perfect 
Manner than ever in any other Man, as sayeth the Prophet 
{Isai. xi. 2), And the Spirit of the Lord shall rest upon him, 
the Spirit of Wisdom and Understanding, the Spirit of Counsel 
and Might, the Spirit of Knowledge, and of the Fear of the 
Lord. This the Evangelist St. John confirms with his 
Testimony {John i. 14), And the Word was made Mesh, and 
dwelt among us ; and vie beheld his Glory, the Glory as of the only 
begotten of the FatJier, full of Grace and Truth. And (ver. 16), 
Of his Fulness have all we received, and Grace for Grace. For 
the Holy Spirit was in Christ, as being of the same Sub- 
stance with him, according to his Divinity ; and filled him 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 61 

with Grace and Wisdom, as it is written {Zuke ii. 40), And 
the Child grew, and waxed strong in Spirit, filled ivith Wisdom, 
and the Grace of God was upon him. This is to be under- 
stood of the human Nature of Christ. 

Question 74. 
What is the first Gift of the Holy Spirit? 


The first Gift is Wisdom ; namely, that Wisdom which is 
from Above, of which the Apostle thus speaketh (James iii. 
17), The Wisdom that is from Above is fi,rst pure, then peace- 
able, gentle, and easy to be entreated, full of Mercy and good 
Fruits, luithmit Partiality, and without Hypocrisy. And this 
is the contrary of carnal Wisdom, according to the Apostle 
(2 Cor. i. 12), In Simplicity and godly Sincerity, not with 
fleshly Wisdom, but by the Grace of God, we have had our Con- 
versation in the World. Which fleshly and worldly Wisdom 
the same Apostle farther speaks of, rehearsing the Old 
Testament (1 Cor. i. 19), For it is written (namely, Isai. 
xxix. 14 and xxxiii. 18), I will destroy the Wisdom of the wise, 
and will bring to nothing the Understanding of the prudent. 
Where is the wise ? Where is the Scribe ? Where is the JDis- 
puter of this World ? Hath not God made foolish the Wisdom 
of this World ? 

Question 75. 

What is the second Gift of the Holy Spirit ? 


The Gift of Understanding, or the Knowledge of the 
hidden and secret Things of the Divine Will, whereof the 
Scripture thus teacheth (Exod. xxxvi. 1), Every wise-hearted 
Man in whom the Lord put Wisdom and Understanding, to know 
how to work all manner of Work for the Service of the Sanctuary, 
according to all that the Lord had commanded. And of the 
Companions of Daniel {Dan. i. 17), God gave them Know- 
ledge and Skill in all Learning and Wisdom, and Daniel 

62 The Orthodox Confession of the 

had Understanding in all Visions and Dreams. And also 
{Luke xxiv. 45), Then opened he their Understanding, that 
they might understand the Scriptures. And the Apostle 
(2 Tim. ii. 7), The Lord give thee Understanding in all 
Things. Contrary to this is Folly and Disbelief ; of which 
our Lord sayeth thus (Luke xxiv. 26), Fool, and slow of 
Heart to believe all that the Prophets have spoken. And 
elsewhere the Apostle {Gal. iii. 3), Are ye so foolish? 
having begun in the Spirit, are ye now made perfect by the 

Question 76. 

What is the third Gift of the Holy Spirit ? 


The third Gift of the Holy Spirit is Counsel, which 
serveth to carry to the divine Glory and the Salvation of 
Men's Souls, and is nearly the same as Justice. Of this 
Counsel the Scripture thus speaketh {Acts xx. 27), For I 
have not shunned to declare unto you all the Counsel of God. 
Opposite to this is the Counsel of the Ungodly ; of which 
thus the divine Psalmist {Psal. i. 1), Blessed is the Man who 
hath not walked in the Counsel of the Ungodly. And again 
(Psal. xxxiii. 10), The Lord bringeth the Counsel of the 
Heathen to nought, and maketh the Devices of the People to 
be of none Effect, and casteth out the Counsels of Princes. 

Question 77. 
What is the fourth Gift of the Holy Spirit ? 


Strength. For, maintaining all Constancy and Fortitude 
in the Faith, we ought bravely to resist all Temptations : 
Of which Strength of Mind the Scripture sayeth thus 
(1 Cor. xvi. 13 and Eph. vi. 14), Watch ye, stand fast in 
the Faith, quit you like Men, be strong. Stand ye, therefore, 
having your Loins girt about with Truth, and having on the 
Breast-plate of Righteousness ; and your Feet shod with the 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 63 

Preparation of the Gospel of Peace ; above all, taking the 
Shield of Faith, wherewith ye shall be able to quench all the 
fiery Darts of the Wicked; and take the Helmet of Salvation, 
and the Snord of the Spirit, which is the Word of God. 
Contrary to this Strength is Fear; of which the Holy 
Prophet sayeth (Psal. xiv. 9), They were brought in great Fear, 
even where no Fear was. And our Lord Jesus Christ forbids 
to have this Fear (Luke xii. 4), Fear not those that kill the 
Body, and after that have no more that they can do. 

Question 78. 
What is ih& fifth Gift of the Holy Spirit ? 


Knowledge, which the holy Psalmist thus describeth 
{Psal. xciv. 10), Who nurfurefh the Heathen, shall not he 
punish? It is he that teacheth Man Knowledge. And the 
Prophet Jerem. iii. 15, J will give you Pastors according to 
mine Heart, which shall feed you with Knowledge and Under- 
standing. Which Knowledge and Understanding is chiefly 
to be understood and explained to mean the Knowledge of 
the Will and Law of God. Contrary to this is Ignorance ; 
namely, of the Divine Will and Law : as sayeth the Psalmist 
(Psal. Ixxix. 6), Pour out thine Indignation upon the Heathen 
that have not known thee, and upon the Kingdoms that have 
not called upon thy Name. 

Question 79. 
What is the sixth Gift of the Holy Ghost ? 


Godliness, which is founded in constant and earnest 
Prayer and Good Works, together with a right Faith ; of 
which the Apostle sayeth (1 Tim. iv. 8), Godliness isprofitdble 
unto all things, having Promise of the Life that nmo is, and of 
that which is to come. Therefore are those truly called godly 

64 The Oriliodox Confession of the 

who continually worship God with Prayer, and shun every- 
thing that appertaineth unto Sin. Grodliness, I say, not 
showy and specious, as was that formerly of the Pharisees, 
but solid and genuine, deep rooted in the Bottom of the 
Heart, and to which this Saying of our Lord's cannot be 
applied {Maith. xv. 8), This People honoureth me with their Lips, 
hut their Heart is far from me. And again (Matth. xxiii. 26), 
Thou Mind Pharisee, cleanse first that which is within the Cup 
and Platter, that the outside of them may be clean also. 

Question 80, 
What is the seventh Gift of the Holy Spirit ? 


The Fear of God, which ought to be like the Fear of 
Children towards their Parents, and not like the Fear of 
Servants towards their Masters. Of this proper, right Fear 
the holy Psalmist singeth (Psal. xxxiv. 9), fear the lord, 
ye that are his Saints, for they that fear him lack nothing. 
But of the other sort of Fear the Apostle sayeth thus (1 John 
iv. 18), There is no Fear in Love, hut perfect Love casteth oiit Fear ; 
hecause Fear hath Torment ; he thatfeareth is not made perfect in 
Love. And the Scripture teacheth us, that we should fear 
God for Love (Psal. xxii. 23), praise the Lord, ye that fear 
him. Magnify him, all ye of the Seed of Jacob ; and fear him, 
all ye Seed of Israel. He that thus feareth the Lord will 
keep his Commandments, as it is said (John xiv. 23), If a 
Man love me, he will keep my Words. 

Question 8L 
"What, and how many, are the Fruits of the Holy Ghost ? 


Saint Paul reckons up nine Fruits of the Holy Ghost, or 
Signs of divine Grace {Gal. v. 22), The Fruit of the Spirit 
is Love, Joy, Peace, Long-suffering, Gentleness, Goodness, Faith, 
Meekness, Temperance. But we are, moreover, to call and 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Ghvrch. 65 

account all other Virtues Fruits of the Holy Spirit, because 
they come down from him, and by his Grace are rightly 
practised by Men : And, therefore, St. Paul doth not add, 
against these (only) there is no Xaw, but against such : there 
being many like unto these. 

Question 82. 
What is the ninth Article of the Faith ? 

In one Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church. 

Question 83. 

What doth the holy Church teach in this Article of the 
Faith ? 


Four Things. First, That the Church is one, holy, catholic 
and apostolic; according to the Doctrine of the Apostle 
(2 Cor. xi. 2), / have espoused you to one Unhand, that I 
may present you as a chaste Virgin unto Christ. For like as 
Christ is only one, so his Spouse also cau be but one ; as is 
manifest from the Epistle to the Ephesians (iv. 5), One Lord, 
one Faith, one Baptism, one God and Father of all. 

Question 84. 
What is the second Thing contained in this Article ? 


The second Thing taught in this Article is, that the Church 
doth not take this Denomination of Catholic Church from 
anyone Place or See predominant over all others; For those 
are particular Churches which are in particular Places ; As 
the Church of Ephesus, of Philadelphia, of Zaodicea, Antioch, 
Jerusalem, Rome, Alexandria, and others. However, among 
these particular Churches she may well be called the Mother 
who was honoured first with tjie Presence of Christ, and 

66 The Orthodox Confession of (he 

received eternal Life and Kemission of Sins, and from which 
the Gospel was first preached and spread through the whole 
World ; As the Scripture witnesseth (JUcke xxiv. 47), Thus 
it hehoved Christ to suffer, and to rise from the Dead the third 
Day. And that Repentance and Remission from Sin should he 
preached in his Name among all Nations, heginnirig at Jerusalem, 
and ye are Witnesses of these Things. And elsewhere {Acts i. 8), 
Ye shall he Witnesses unto me hoth in Jerusalem, and in all 
Judea, and in Samaria, and unto the uttermost Parts of the 
Earth. And she is wont to be respected first who outshone 
all other Churches in Sanctity of Doctrine and Manners, and 
to whose Judgment the Apostles submitted their Actions ; 
as the Scripture tells us {Acts xi. 2), And when Peter was 
come up to Jerusalem, they that were of the Circumcision con- 
tended with him, saying, TJiou wentest in to Men uncircumcised, 
and didst eat tvith them. To which Peter answered (ver. 17), 
What was I, that I could withstand God ? When they heard 
these Things they held their Peace, and glorified God, saying, Then 
hath God also to the Gentiles granted Repentance unto Life. And 
(ver. 22), Then Tidings of these Things came unto the Ears 
of the Church which was in Jerusalem ; and they sent forth 
Barnabas, that he should go as far as Antioch. And elsewhere 
(chap. XV. 2), They determined that Paul and Barnabas, and 
certain others of them, should go up to Jerusalem unto the Apostles 
and Elders ahout this Question ; (ver. 22), Then pleased it the 
Apostles and Elders, with the whole Church, to send chosen Men 
of their own Company to Antioch with Paul and Barnabas, and 
wrote Letters hy them after this Manner : It seemed good unto the 
Holy Ghost, and to us, to lay no greater Burden tipon you than 
those necessary Tilings. Farther also of the same, in xvi. 4 
of the Acts : And as they went through the Cities, they delivered 
them the Decrees for to keep, that were ordained of the Apostles and 
Elders which were at Jerusalem. The Church of Jerusalem, 
therefore, is without Doubt the Mother and Princess of all 
other Churches : forasmuch as the Gospel was spread from her 
over the whole World (although, indeed, in Aftertimes, the 
Emperors gave the Precedency to Old and New Rome, fi,.' the 
Honour of the Empire, which they became the Seats of, accord- 
ing to the third Canon of the second general Council of Con- 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Clmrch. 67 

stantinoph). Nevertheless, this Church of Jerusalem was the 
uuiversal Church, as all Nations received their Faith and 
Doctrine from her. 

Question 85. 

What is the third Thing contained in this Article ? 


That Jesus Christ is the only Foundation of the Church, 
according to the Words of the Apostle (1 Cor. iii. 11), Other 
Foundation can no Man lay tlian that is laid, which is Jesus 
Christ. Although in some Times the Apostles and Prophets 
are called the Foundations of the Faith and of the Church ; 
as when St. John says (Bev. xxi. 14), That the great City, 
Jerusalem, was enclosed with a Wall, having twelve Foundations, 
and in them the Nanus of the twelve Apostles of the Lamb were 
written. And St. Paul affirms, that we are built upon the 
Foundations of the Apostles and Prophets. This is to be 
understood, not as if the Apostles and Prophets were these 
Foundations of themselves, and in the first Instance ; for 
in that Sense Christ only is the Foundation ; But secondarily, 
and with relation, as being themselves laid next upon the 
Foundation of the Doctrine of Salvation of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, as being the First who propagated the Faith of Christ 
over the whole World. For Christ hatli not founded his 
Church on any Mortal Men, but only upon himself, and 
on his own divine Doctrine. Moreover, we are taught, in this 
Article, that Christ is the only Head of his Church ; accord- 
ing as we are taught by the Apostle (Ephes. v. 23), For the 
Husband is the Head of the Wife, and Christ is the Head of the 
Church; and he is the Saviour of the Body . And again (Golos. 
i. 18), He is the Head of the Body of the Chiorch, who is the 
Beginning, and the first-born from the Dead; that in all 
things he m-ight have the Pre-eminence. However, the Rulers 
">of the Church are called Heads, in their several Churches 
over which they are placed ; but this is only as Stewards 
ana 7icars of Christ, in his several Provinces, over which 
they are said to be Heads. Thus the holy Scripture speaks 
then {Acts xx. 28), Take heed, therefore, unto yourselves, and unto 

68 2'he Orthodox Confession of the 

the whole Flock, over the which the Holy Gliost hath made you 
Overseers, to feed the Churches of God, which he hath purchased 
with his own Mood. In suchwise, however, that Christ him- 
self is the Head and Chief of the Shepherds ; as St. Peter 
testifies (1 Peter v. 4), Wlien the chief Shepherd shall appear, 
ye shall receive a Crown of Glory thatfadeth not aivay. 


What is ihe fourth Thing taught in this Article? 


It instructs us, that every Christian ought to submit 
himself and be obedient to the Church. This Christ himself 
teacheth {Matth. xviii. 17), If he neglect to hear the Church, 
let him he unto thee as an Heathen Man and a Publican. And 
the Church is so fully empowered, that she hath Authority, 
in her general Councils, to examine and warrant the Scrip- 
ture, to inquire into the Behaviour and judge of Patriarchs, 
Popes, Bishops, and all others, And to inflict severe Canonical 
Punishment upon them according to their Offences. For it 
is the Pillar and the Grouud of Truth, as the Apostle says 
(1 Tim. iii. 15), That thou mayest know hovi thou, oughtest to 
behave thyself in the House of God, which is the CJiurch of the 
Living God, the Pillar and Ground of Truth. 

Question 87. 
What are the Precepts of the Church ? 


The Chief and Principal Commands or Precepts of the 
Church are nine in number. First, That every one Worship 
God with an humble and contrite Heart, and carefully ob- 
serve all the Sundays and Holy Days, and all other solemn 
Times as the Church shall appoint. That is, by dilio-ently 
attending on all the Service of Morning Prayer, the Holy 
Communion, Evening Prayers, and Serm^ons, of which the Scri]i- 
ture thus teacheth us (.Ltikc xviii. 1), Men ought always to 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 69 

pray, ami not to faint. And again {Eph. vi. 18), Praying 
always with all Prayer and Supplication in the Spirit, and 
watching thereunto with all Perseverance and Supplication for 
all Saints. And in another place St. Paid goes on (1 Thess. 
V. 17), Pj-ay without ceasing. 

QuiiSTioN 88. 
Wliat is the second Precept of the Church? 


That every Christian do yearly keep and observe four 
stated or set Lents, or Times oi Fasting. The^rs^, just before 
the Time of the Nativity of Christ, beginning the fifteenth Day 
of November. The second, which is called the Great Lent, 
established by the Fasting of Christ himself (JfaWA. iv. 2), And 
when he Iiad fasted forty Days and forty Nights, at length he was 
an hungered. The third is of the holy Apostles, which the Church 
appoints to begin immediately after the Whitsun Week; this 
is called the Lent of the holy Apostles, because at this time 
the holy Apostles, being just upon going forth to preach the 
Gospel, solemnised a Fast, as appears from the Acts (xiii. 3), 
When they had fasted and prayed, tluy laid their Hands on them 
and seni them away. The fourth is the Fast of the all-holy, 
the God-hearing, and ever Virgin Mary, beginning the first 
Day of August, and ending on the Feast of the Assumption, 
which is the fifteenth Day of the same Month. Moreover, he 
must Fast on all Wednesdays and Fridays, but not on Satur- 
days and Sundays (this being forbidden by the LXVI. Canon 
of the holy Apostles), except the great Sahhath, or Saturday, 
which is the Faster Fve. The Church also appoints the 
fourteenth of September, being the exaltation of the holy 
Cross, to be observed as a Fast, because on that Day we 
solemnise the Memory of our Lord suffering, by reciting 
the Gospel wherein that is related. Also, the twenty-ninth 
of August is to be held a Fast, it being the Decollation of 
St. John the Baptist, the Forerunner of Christ. Farthermore, 
on some certain Days the Church forbiddeth us to Fast ; as 
from the Day of our Lord's Nativity to the Epiphany, and' 

70 The Orthodox Confession of the 

all the Week of Easter, and Whitsun Week. Also the Week 
before Septuagesima Sunday and the Week between Sexage- 
sima and Quinq^iMgesinm Sundays. All which the orthodox 
Christian ought most faithfully to keep and observe. 

Question 89. 
What is the third Precept of the Church ? 


That we respect spiritual Persons with all due Eeverence, 
as the Ministers of God set apart, who pray to God for us : 
Especially those who, as our spiritual Fathers, receive our 
Confessions, and whom we are to consult about our Salva- 
tion. Of this Command the Scripture thus declareth (1 Cor. 
iv. 1), Let a Man so account of us as of the Ministers of Christ 
and Stewards of the Mysteries of God. And again (1 Thess. v. 12), 
We beseech you, Brethren, to know them who labour among you, 
and are over you in the Lord, aud admonish you that you esteem, 
them very highly in love, for their Work's sake. Also in another 
place (1 Cor. ix. 13), iPo ye not knovj that they which minister 
about holy Things live by the Things of the Temple ? and they 
which wait at the Altar are Partakers ivith the Altar ? Even so 
hath the Lord ordained that they who preach the Gospel should 
live of the Gospel. Also in his Epistle to Timothy (1 Tim. v. 17), 
Let the Elders that rule well be counted worthy of double Honour, 
especially they who labour in the Word and Doctrine. It is, 
therefore, unlawful for Lay Persons to meddle with and 
thrust themselves into Spiritual Matters ; as the Apostle 
says {Gal. vi. 1), Brethren, if a Man be overtaken in a Fault, ye 
who are spiritual, restore such an one in the Spirit of Meekness. 

Question 90. 
What is the fourth Precept of the Church ? 


That we make Confession of ou,r Sins to a Priest, rightly 
and lawfully ordained, /owr Times every Year. However, those 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 71 

who are well advanced in Religion and Godliness may dis- 
charge this Duty every Month. The weaker Brethren must at 
least once a Tear, namely, at the great Lent, not fail to un- 
burden their Conscience by Confession : And let the Sick, 
before all Things, purify their Conscience by Confession, and 
partaking of the holy Sacrament, having first received the 
holy Oil, with Prayer, with Reverence and Devotion. 

Question 91. 
What is the fifth Precept of the Church ? 


That plain and unlearned Men do not read the Books of 
Heretics, nor listen to their Doctrines, nor entertain any 
Conversation with them, lest they be corrupted, by becom- 
ing familiar with them : As the Psalmist Prophet warns us 
(Psal. i. 1), Blessed is the Man who hath not walked in the Counsel 
of the Ungodly, nor stood in the Way of Sinners. And else- 
where the Scripture enjoins us {Tit. iii. 10), A Man that is an 
Heretic, after the first and second Admonition, reject. 

Question 92. 
What is the sixth Precept of the Church ? 


That we pray unto the all-good God for all Conditions of 
Men. First, For all spiritual Persons ; for the most holy 
Patriarch, for the Metropolitan, and for the Bishop of the 
Province to which we belong. Secondly, For the King, the 
Governor of our Province, the Senate and Commonwealth, 
and for the Army ; but chiefly for those who deserve well 
of the Church and endeavour to propagate and extend the 
orthodox and catholic Religion. According to the Apostle 
(1 Tim. ii. 1), / exhort, therefore, that first of all Supplications, 
Prayers, Intercessions, and giving of Thanhs he made for all Men, 
for Kings, and for all that are in Authority, that we may lead 
a quiet and peaceable Life, in all Godliness and Honesty; for this 

72 The Orthodox Confession of tJie 

is good and acceptable in the sight of God our Saviour. Thirdly, 
We are to pray for all those who are departed hence in the 
orthodox Faith. Lastly, We are to make Intercession for 
Heretics and Schismatics, that they may repent and return 
to the Sanctuary of true Eeligion before their last Day. 

Question 93. 
What is the seventh Precept of the Church ? 


That all People observe to keep the Fasts and Supplica- 
tions which are particularly enjoined and appointed by their 
Metropolitan or Bishops of their Diocese, when they think 
proper, by reason of any Necessity, to appease the Wrath of 
God, afflicting his People ; and for Deliverance from Pesti- 
lence, Famine, War, Drought, excessive Eain, and the like : 
Or for the Sick, and those that are oppressed. As it is said 
(Acts xii. 6), Peter therefore was kept in Prison : hut Prayer was 
made without ceasing of the Church to God for him. 

Question 94. 
What is the eighth Precept of the Church ? 


That lay Persons do not presume to meddle with the 
Goods or Moneys belonging to the Church, or take them 
away by Fraud or Force and apply them to their own 
needs ; But that those Cares be committed to the Kulers of 
the Church, that with the holy Treasure they may provide 
Vestments and other Necessaries ; so that those who minister 
unto the Church, being clothed and fed, they may have 
wherewith to relieve the Poor and the Stranger : According 
to the Scripture (Acts xi. 29), TJie Disciples, every Man accord- 
ing to his Ability, determined to send Belief unto the Brethren 
that dwelt in Judea ; which also they did, and sent it to the 
Elders by the Hands of Barnabas and Saul. Besides, it is 
unjust that either secular Men, or, indeed, that even the 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 73 

spiritual Rulers who, in any Church, are entrusted with the 
Care of the Things appertaining to the Church, should 
withdraw any Money, or other valuable Movables, whether 
left by Will to the Church or given to it otherwise, and 
pervert them to their own private Use and Profit: For 
thus the Piety of well-disposed Persons would be disap- 
pointed and rendered inefi'ectual. 

Question 95. 
What is the ninth Precept of the Church ? 


That no Marriage be solemnised on such Days as are 
forbidden by the Church. Also, that orthodox Christians 
abstain from forbidden Games and Diversions, and from 
Theatres and unseemly Shows ; not following the Manners 
and Behaviour of Barbarians and Savages, but avoiding, as 
much as possible, all their bad Customs. 

Question 96. 

Wherefore do we, who ought only to believe in God, pro- 
fess to believe in the Church, which is a Creature ? 


Because, although the Church be a Creature, as consist- 
ing of Men, who are created Beings, she hath for her 
Head Christ himself, who is very God. She hath the Holy 
Ghost, who perpetually teacheth and guideth her, and 
maketh her, according to the Apostle (Uph. v. 27), The spot- 
less and unblemished Spouse of Christ; and (1 Tim. iii. 15), The 
Pillar and Ground of the Truth. Now, her Precepts and 
Doctrines are by no means human, but divine ; not by 
Man, but of God. When, therefore, we profess to believe 
in her, we profess to believe in the Scriptures delivered to 
her of God, and in the Commands, which are inspired 
by God. For thus sayeth the Scripture (2 Pet. i. 21), Holy 
Men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost. In 

74 The Orthodox Confession o/lhe 

like Manner St. Paul (1 Thess. ii. 13), Ye received it not as 
the Word of Men, but {as it is in Truth) the Word of God. 
"Wherefore we are persuaded to have Faith, both in the 
holy Gospel, which the Church hath received, according to 
that Command of Christ himself (Mark i. 15), Believe the 
Gospel, and also in all the other holy Writings and 
Decrees of Councils. 

Question 97. 

What is the tenth Article of the Faith ? 

I acknoivledge one Baptism for the Remission of Sins. 

Question 98. 
What doth this Article of the Faith teach ? 


Whereas we here have Baptism, which is the first 
Mystery of the Church made mention of: This seemeth 
a meet Place wherein to discourse concerning the seven 
Mysteries of the Church, which be these : Baptism, the 
Unguent of Chrism, Eucharist, Penance, Priesthood, 
Marriage, and Oil with Prater ; Which seven Mysteries 
correspond unto the seven Gifts of the Spirit ; inasmuch 
as by them the Holy Spirit conveyeth his Gifts and Grace 
unto the Soul that rightly useth these Mysteries. Con- 
cerning which Matter the Patriarch Jeremias hath more at 
large treated, in the Books which he wrote for the Conver- 
sion of the Lutherans. 

Question 99. 
What is a Mystery or Sacrament ? 


A Mystery is a certain holy Rite or Ceremony, which, under 
a visible Shorn, causes and conveys into the Soul of the Faith- 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 75 

ful the invisible Grace of God ; an Institution of our Lord, 
nhereby every one of the Faithful receiveth the divine Grace. 

Question 100. 
What things are requisite to a Mystery ? 


Three Things. First, Fit and proper Matter, as Water 
in Baptism, Bread and Wine in the Eucharist, Oil and other 
things in their respective Mysteries. Secondly, A Bishop, or 
a Priest, regularly ordained. Thirdly, The Invocation of the 
Holy Ghost, and a solemn Form, of Words: By which the Priest 
celebrates the Mystery, through the Power and Efficacy of 
the Holy Ghost : Having a fixed and deliberate Intention of 
celebrating it. 

Question 101, 

For what End were Mysteries instituted? 


First, That they might be the Marks and Signs of the true 
Children of God, and of the Orthodox Catholic and Apostolic 
Church. For whosoever rightly partakes of the Mysteries, 
the same is a real and true Member of the Church of God ; 
and by Grace a Child of God. Secondly, That we might have 
a sure Pledge of our Trust in God. To wit, that if we per- 
severe with Constancy in Faith and good Works, we shall 
finally become Partakers of Salvation and eternal Life. 
Thirdly, That we might have a present and certain Remedy 
wherewith to heal the Infirmities caused by our Sins. 

Question 102. 
What is the first Mystery, or Baptism ? 


Baptism is a washing away and rooting out of original Sin, 
by being thrice immersed in Water; the Priest pronaioncing these 

76 The Orthodox Confession of Lhe 

Words: In The Name Of The Father, Amen; And Of 
The Son, Amen ; And Of The Holt Ghost, Amen.* After 
which Kegeneration by Water and the Spirit a Man is re- 
stored to the Grace of God, and the Way opened him into the 
Kingdom of Heaven ; as our Saviour said {John iii. 5), Except 
a Man he lorn of Water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into 
the Kingdom of God. But this Mystery being once received, 
is not to be again repeated ; provided the Person who ad- 
ministered the Baptism believed orthodoxly in Three Persons 
IN One God, and accurately, and without any Alteration, 
pronounced the afore-mentioned Words ; namely, In the Name 
of the Father, and of tlie Son, and of the Holy Ghost, Amen. As 
the Holy Catholic and Orthodox Church directs. 

Question 103. 
What is requisite to be observed in this Mystery ? 


First, It is necessary that the Infant, by his Surety, who 
ought to be an orthodox Christian, should renounce the 
Devil and all his Works, and all Respect and Worship to 
him : But if the Person to be baptized be of full Age, then 
he shall, with his own Mouth, make this Renunciation, by 
auswering the Question put to him by the Priest, and by 
expressing his scorn of Satan and all his Works. Secondly, 
That he make open Confession of the Faith, by repeating the 
Creed ; but if it be an Infant, the Surety shall profess the 
Creed for it, and bind it unto God. And, thirdly, That care 
be taken to use none other than pure Water, not mixed with 
any other Thing ; and such as is natural, and not made by 
Art. Furthermore, lawful Baptism must necessarily be ad- 
ministered by a minister of the Word only, unless in Case 
of urgent Necessity, when any other Person, whether Man 
or Woman, may administer this Sacrament ; being observant 
to use the proper Requisite, namely, unmixed and natural 
and pure Water, and dipping the Person to be baptized thrice 

* The Sureties, or Godfathers and Godmothers, say Amen. 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 77 

tliereiu, repeating the solemn Form of In The Name Of Tiik 
Father, And Of The Son, And Of The Holy Ghost, Amen. 
And this Baptism, which is not to be again repeated, is of such 
Power and Efficacy, that it is an undoubted Seal and Pledge 
of eternal Salvation. Now, what the Fruits and Benefits are 
of this Mystery may be easily apprehended ; for, first, it taketh 
away original Siu in Infants, and in those of ripe Age it 
taketh away both original and voluntary Sin, Secondly, It 
plainly renews or regenerates the Man, and restores him to 
that State of Justice and ■ Righteousness wherein he stood 
before, while undefiled with Sin, in the State of Innocence ; 
As the Apostle testifies (1 Cor. vi. 11), But ye are Washed, hut 
ye are sanctified, hut ye are justified, in the Name of the Lord 
Jesus, and hy the Spirit of our God, Moreover, by Baptism 
we become Members of Christ's Body, and put on the Lord 
Jesii^, as the Apostle witnesseth (Gal. iii. 27), As many of 
you as have been Baptized with Christ have put on Christ. 

Question 104. 
What is the second Mystery in the Church of Christ ? 


The Ointment of Chrism is the second Mystery ; and this 
had its Beginning at the Time when the Holy Ghost came 
down from Heaven and rested upon the Apostles,* and 
sealed them with his divine Grace, that they might preach 
the Faith of Christ steadfastly and without ceasing. Of this 
Blessing and divine Assistance hath every one need who 
becometh a Christian ; and as then the Holy Ghost came 
down in the Visible Form of Fire and bestowed his Grace, 
or Gifts, upon the Apostles, so now, when the Priest 
anointeth the newly baptized Person with the holy Oil, he 
becomes endued from above with the Gifts of tlie Holy 
Spirit : As appears from the Words which the Priest (as 
appointed) useth in the Celebration of this Mystery ; namely, 
The Seal Of The Gift Of The Holy Ghost, Amen. As 

* Acts ii. 

78 The Ortliodox Confession of the 

if he should say, By the anointing of this holy Ointment 
thou art sealed and confirmed into the Gifts of the Holy 
Ghost, which thou dost receive for a confirmation of thy 
Christian Faith. Agreeable hereto are the Words of the 
Apostle (2 Cor. i. 21), He which establisheth us with you in 
Christ, and hath anointed us, is God: Who hath also sealed 
us, and given the Earnest of the Spirit in our Hearts. This 
Anointing, or rather the bestowing the Efficacy of this 
Unction, was done in the Times of the Apostles by laying 
on of Hands ; according to the Scripture {Acts viii. 17), Then 
laid they their Hands on them, and they received the Holy Ghost. 
This was afterwards performed by anointing with Ointment, 
as we learn from St. Dionysius the Areopagite, who was the 
Disciple of St. Paul {Ecclesiastical Hierarchy, ch. ii. and iv.). 

What are the Things necessary for the Celebration hereof? 


First, It is necessary that this Holy Ointment be con- 
secrated by a Bishop of the highest Order. Secondly, That 
it be composed of apt and fit Material, as Oil, Balsam, and 
other Unguent. Thirdly, That immediately after Baptism 
the Priest do anoint the Members of the baptized Person 
which are directed to be anointed, using this Form of 
Words, The Seal Of The Gift Of The Holt Ghost, Amen. 
Now, from this Mystery do arise the following Fruits: 
First, That as by Baptism we are born again, so by this 
holy Ointment we are made Partakers of the Holy Ghost, 
we are confirmed or established in the Faith of the Lord, 
and immediately become ripe in the divine Favour ; As the 
Apostle teacheth us (Titus iii. 5), According to his Mercy he 
saved us, hy the washing of Regeneration, and renewing of the 
Holy Ghost, which he shed on us abundantly, through Jesus 
Christ, our Saviour. Secondly, That by the Assistance of the 
Holy Ghost we are so strengthened and established, that 
our ghostly Enemy cannot, by any Means, hurt our Souls. 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 79 

Lastly, This Mystery may not again be repeated unless it be 
unto those who, having renounced the name of Christ, return 
again unto the Profession of his true Faith. 

Question 106. 
What is the third Mystery ? 


The holy Eucharist, or the Body and Blood of our Lord 
Jesus Christ, under the visible Species of Bread and Wine : 
Wherein, really and properly, and according to the Thing 
itself, Jesus Christ is present. This Mystery is in an eminent 
Degree above all the other Mysteries, and conduceth unto our 
Salvation in a more, especial Manner than they all do ; for 
in this Mystery the whole Grace and Benefits of our Lord 
JesU:S are manifested and imparted to all the Faithful ; as 
will more fully appear hereafter. 

Question 107. 
What is to be observed in this Mystery? 


First, That no man do presume to administer this Mystery, 
on any Occasion whatsoever, although ever so urgent; but 
only a Priest lawfully ordained. Secondly, It must be provided, 
that where the Priest is to celebrate this Sacrament there be 
a fit and proper Altar, or at least a consecrated Cloth, without one 
of which he may not, by any means, offer the unbloody Sacrifice. 
Thirdly, Let him take heed that he be provided with the 
proper necessaries, namely, the purest leavened Bread, made 
of Grain, and the purest Wine, unmixed with any other 
Liquor : whereto, in the Time of Celebration, let Water be 
added; that the Scripture may be fulfilled, which sayeth 
{John xix. 34), One of the Soldiers pierced his side, and forth- 
with came thereout Water and Blood. Fourthly, In the Moments 
of Consecration of the holy Gifts, the Priest must firmly and 
undoubtingly resolve within himself that the Substance of the 

80 The Orthodox Gonjession of the 

Bread and the Substance of the Wine are changed into the 
very Substance of the very Body and Blood of Jesus Christ, 
by the operation or working of the Holy Ghost, whose Power 
and Influence let the Priest invoke in these Words, in order 
to the due Performance of this Mystery: Lord, send down 
from Heaven thy Holy Spirit iipon us, mid upon these Gifts now 
lying before thee ; and make this Bread the precious Body of 
thy Christ, and that which is in this Cup the precious Blood 
of thy Christ, changing them hy thy Holy Spirit. At these 
Words there is wrought a Change in the Elements, and the 
Bread becomes the very Body of Christ, and the Wine his very 
Blood ; the Species only remaining, which are perceived by 
the Sight ; In the first Place, that we might not behold the 
Body of Christ with our Eyes, but by Faith, only, believe it 
to be so ; because Christ said, " This is my Body" and " This 
is my Blood," depending and trusting rather in the Words 
and Power of our Lord than on our own Senses ; and so 
becoming Partakers of the Blessing which is the Reward of 
Faith (John xx. 29), Blessed are they that have not seen, and 
yet have Relieved. And farthermore, secondly^ because that 
human Nature would abhor and be shocked at the eating of 
raw Flesh ; and yet, nevertheless, by the partaking of the 
Body and Blood of Christ in this Mystery, a Christian is most 
closely united with Christ. Therefore, to the End that our 
Weak Nature might not abominate and reject this necessary 
Partaking, the divine Goodness hath taken this Method to 
familiarise and conciliate it unto us, and imparteth unto the 
Faithful the very Body and the very Blood of Christ for 
Meat and Drink, under the Covering of Bread and Wine. 
Hereof St. Gregory JVyssene and St. Damascene fully treat. 

Moreover, the Communion of this Mystery ought to be 
alike received and partaken by the Clergy and the Laity, 
by the Priest and the People, in both kinds; namely, of 
both the Bread and the Wine. For so Christ commanded, 
without making any Distinction (John vi. 54), Except ye eat 
the Flesh of the Son of Man, and drink his Blood, ye have no 
Life in you. Wlioso eateth my Flesh, and drinketh my Blood, 
dwelleth in me, and I in him. Wherefore the holy Apostles 
have delivered this Mystery unto others, as they themselves 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 81 

received it of Christ ; namely, to the joint and equal use of 
both secular Persons and Persons in the Priesthood ; and 
in both kinds, both of the Bread and of the Wine: As 
St. Pa%d writes to the Corinthians (1 Cor. xi. 23), For I re- 
ceived of the Lord that which I also delivered unto you ; that 
the Lord Jesus, in the same Night in which he was betrayed, took 
Bread; and when he had given Thanhs, he IraJce it, and said, Take, 
eat ; this is my Body, which is hroJcen for you ; this do in re- 
menibrance of me. After the same Manner, also, he took the Cup, 
when he had supped, saying, This Cup is the New Testament in 
my Blood ; this do ye, as often as ye drink it, in remembrance 
of me. Farthermore, the Honour which is due to these awful 
Mysteries ought to be the same and eqiml to that which is 
rendered to Christ himself (as we have before said in the 
fifty-seventh Qtoestion), and as St. Peter, speaking in the Name 
of all the Apostles, and, as it were, with their Mouth, said, 
(Matth. xvi. 16), Thou art Christ, the Son of the living God; 
so we, in like manner worshipping him, do profess, saying, 
"/ believe, Lord, and confess, that thou art the very Christ, the 
Son of the living God, who didst come into the World to save 
Sinners, of whom J am chief." This holy Mystery is also 
offered as a Sacrifice for all orthodox Christians, as well 
living as those who sleep in hopes of a joyful Resurrection ; 
and this Sacrifice shall never fail, nor be discontinued, even 
unto the End of the World. The Fruits of this Mystery are 
chiefly these : — First, A Commemoration of the Sufferings 
and of the Death of Christ ; wherewith he was afflicted, not 
for his own, but for our Transgressions : As saith the 
Scripture (I Cor. xi. 26), As often as ye eat this Bread and 
drink this Cup, ye do shew the Lord's Death till he come. 
Secondly, This Mystery is a Propitiation, or Atonement with 
God, for our Sins, both of the Living and also of the Dead : 
Wherefore the holy Liturgy is never solemnized, but there 
are always Prayers and Supplications made unto God for 
our Sins. Thirdly, The devout Christian, who frequently 
partakes of this Sacrifice, is hereby delivered from the Snares 
and Temptations of the Devil; for that Enemy cannot pre- 
vail against him whom he findeth to have Cheist dwelling 
in him. Lastly, A Man should rightly prepare himself for 

82 The Orthodox Confession of the 

the receiving of this awful Mystery, according to the Pre- 
cepts of our orthodox Church; namely, by a sincere Confes- 
sion of his Sins, by Fasting and Mortification, by a perfect 
Reconciliation with all Persons, and the like. 

Question 108. 
"What is the fourth Mystery F 


Holy Orders, or the Priesthood ; and this is twofold — the 
one spiritual, the other sacramental. Of the former, namely, 
the spiritual Priesthood, all Christians in general are equally 
endowed, and do exercise it in common, according to that 
saying of St. Peter the Apostle (1 Pet. ii. 9), But ye are 
a chosen Generation, a royal Priesthood, an holy Nation, a 
•peculiar People. And St. John, in the Revelation (chap. v. 9), 
Thou wast slain, and hast redeemed us to God by thy Blood, 
out of every Kindred and Tongue, and People and Nation ; 
and hast made us unto our God Kings and Priests. And 
accordingly as this Priesthood is, so are its Oblations; 
namely. Prayers, Thanksgiving, Mortification of the Flesh, 
voluntary Sufferings of Martyrdom for Christ, and such 
like ; to which the Apostle St. Peter exhorteth us (1 Pet. 
ii. 5), Te also, as lively Stones, are built up a spiritual House, 
an holy Priesthood to offer up spiritual Sacrifices, acceptable to 
God, by Jesus Christ. Also St. Paul (Pom. xii. 1), I exhort 
you, therefore, Brethren, by the Mercies of God, that ye pre- 
sent your Bodies a living Sacrifice, holy, acceptable unto God, 
rchich is your reasonable Service. 

Question 109. 
What, then, is the sacramental Priesthood F 


The Priesthood, which is a Mystery, is that which Christ 
committed to his Apostles; which is continued down unto 
this Day, by their laying on of Hands, and by the layino- 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 83 

on of Hands of the Bishops, who are the Successors of the 
Apostles, to dispense the divine Mysteries, and to perform 
the Ministry of the Salvation of Mankind. Thus saith the 
Apostle (1 Cor. iv. 1), Let a Man so account of us as of the 
Ministers of Christ, and Stewards of the Mysteries of God. 
Now, this Stewardship is twofold. First, it comprehendeth 
the Power of absolving Men from their Sins, as we read in 
St. Matthew (chap, xviii. 18), Whatsoever ye shall loose on 
Earth, shall he loosed in Heaven. In the next place, it con- 
taineth the Power and Permission to Teach ; as it is de- 
livered unto us in these Words {Matth. xxviii. 19), Go, teach 
ye all Nations, baptizing them in the Name of the Father, 
and of the Son, and of the Holy Ohost. From hence it is 
manifest that Christ sent forth the Apostles to preach the 
Gospel ; and again, the Apostles afterwards sent forth others, 
whom they ordained to this Work by laying on of their Hands ; 
according to St. Luke {Acts viii. 17), Then laid they their 
Hands on them, and they received the Holy Ghost. And again 
{Acts xiii. 2), As they ministered unto the Lord (that is, while 
they offered the unbloody Sacrifice to God), and fasted, the 
Holy Ghost said. Separate me Barnabas and Saul for the Work 
whereunto L have called them ; and when they had fasted and 
prayed, and laid their Hands on them, they sent them away. 
Also St. Paul (1 Tim. v. 22), Lay Hands suddenly on no Man. 
By this kind of Ordination and uninterrupted Succession, 
those who are sent forth unto this Work have the Power 
and Permission to preach the Doctrine of Salvation ; as 
saith St. Paul {Bom. x. 15), How shall they preach unless 
they be sent ? 

Question 110. 
What is to be regarded in this Mystery ? 


Those who are admitted to this Mystery must be first 
thoroughly examined and tried, that they be qualified in 
three Particulars. First, That they have a good and clear 
Conscience, so that they be free from all those Crimes 

84 The Orthodox Confession of the 

which render them incapable of receiving holy Orders. 
Secondly, That they be adorned with Wisdom and Learning, 
both in dispensing the holy Mysteries, as also in edifying 
and instructing the ignorant People, by their Sermons and 
Discourses. Thirdly, That they be sound and perfect in all 
their Limbs and Members ; which are necessary toward a 
due Discharge of their Function. 

Question 111. 

Are there not some Orders which are given before the 
Order of Priesthood? 


The Order of Priesthood includes all other Orders in itself 
nevertheless, they ought all to be given in their due Order 
namely, the Lector, or Reader ; the Chantor, or Singer 
the Lampadary, or he who lighteth the Lamps ; the Sub- 
Deacon ; the Deacon ; as more at large is declared in the 
Euchologium, where it directs concerning these Things. 
However, it is enough at present, with relation to this 
orthodox Confession, to note that it is the Duty of the 
Bishop, that unto whatsoever degree of holy Orders he doth 
admit any Person, he do clearly and plainly instruct such 
Person in the Duties of that Office which is committed to 
him, whether it be the Order of the holy Liturgy, the read- 
ing of the Gospel, the Epistle, the serving the holy Vessels, 
or the cleaning of the Church. For each Degree is dis- 
tinguished from another by its own peculiar Duty and 
Habit ; and this is to be explained and taught them by the 

Question' 112. 

What is the fifth Mystery ? 


The fifth Mystery is Penance, which is a true and thorough 
Sorrow for the Sin that a Person hath been guilty of, and 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 85 

wliich he confessed unto the Priest, his spiritual Father, 
with a full purpose of performing the Penance inflicted by 
him, and a steadfast Resolution to amend his Life for the 
future. This Mystery is most complete, and doth then most 
fully benefit us, when, according to the Constitution and 
Customs of the Church, Absolution of Sins is granted by the 
Priest. For so soon as any Person receiveth the Absolution 
of his Sins, they are all forthwith pardoned by God, through 
the ministration of the Priest : According to the Words of 
Christ {John xx. 22 and 23), Receive ye the Holy Ghost: 
whose soever Sins ye remit, they are remitted unto them ; and 
whose soever Sins ye retain, they are retained. 

Question 113. 
What is to be observed in this Mystery ? 


First, It is requisite that the Penitent be a Christian of 
the orthodox and catholic Faith ; for that Repentance which 
is destitute of a right Faith is no Repentance, nor is it 
acceptable with G-od. Secondly, That the Confessor who 
heareth and receiveth the Repentance of Christians be also, 
himself. Orthodox ; for an Heretic and an Apostate hath 
no Power of Absolving. Thirdly, It is necessary that the 
Penitent have a contrite Heart and a serious Sorrow for 
his Sins, whereby he hath provoked God to Anger or in- 
jured his neighbour. Concerning which Contrition David 
said {Psal. li. 17), A broken and contrite Heart, God, shalt 
thou not despise. This Contrition of Heart ought to be 
followed by an exact and particular Confession, in Words, 
of all Sins and Misdeeds ; for the Ghostly Father cannot 
absolve where he knoweth of nothing to absolve ; neither can 
he lay on or impose due Penance. The Holy Scripture 
manifestly speaketh of this Confession {Acts xix. 18), And 
many that believed came, and confessed, and showed their 
Deeds. And elsewhere {James v. 16), Confess your Faults 

86 The Orthodox Confession of the 

one to another, and pray one for another, that ye may be healed. 
Again (in Mark i. 5), And there went out unto him all the Land 
(p/Judea, and they 0/ Jerusalem, and were all baptized of him 
in the River Jordan, confessing their Sins. Now, this Confession 
ought to have these Properties, namely, that whenever it be 
exercised, iihe humble, devout, true, sincere, accusing itself with 
Grief and Mourning. The last Part of Penance is the peni- 
tential Canon, and Punishment which the Confessor appointeth 
and inflicts ; of which kind are Prayer, Alms, Fastings, PiU 
grimages to holy Places, Prostrations, and the like ; as the 
Ghostly Father judgeth proper. And let him who departeth 
from Confession, having obtained Absolution, apply to him- 
self what the Author of the Psalms saith {Psal. xxxiv. 14), 
Eschew Evil, and do Good. And also that which our Saviour 
saith (John v. 14), Behold thou art made whole : sin no more, 
lest a worse Thing come unto thee. And again (in John 
viii. 11), Go, and sin no more. But, forasmuch as it is 
impossible that a Man should, altogether and entirely, avoid 
Sin, the pious Christian must, according to the best of his 
Understanding and Ability, endeavour, from Confession to 
Confession, to amend his Life to the utmost of his Power. 

Question 114. 
What are the Fruits of this Mystery ? 


The first Benefit which we receive is that, whereas by 
Sin we are deprived of that Innocence we obtained in 
Baptism, now, by Penance, we approach nearer to that 
State. And as, by Sin, we had forfeited the divine Grace, 
now, by Eepentance, we regain it : And, having become the 
Slaves of the Devil by Sin, by Repentance we are made 
free. Lastly, As Fear and Dread entered into our Con- 
sciences through Sin, so now, by Eepentance, we are 
restored to Peace and Confidence, such as Children are 
wont to have towards their Parents. 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 87 

Question 115. 
What is the sixth Master)/ ? 


Honourable Marriage, which, in the first Place, is made by 
the mutual Consent and Agreement of a Man and Woman 
with each other, where there is no lawful Impediment to 
hinder it. However, this Consent, alone, doth not make the 
Bond of Marriage, unless the same Persons do confirm their 
Espousals, by a mutual Testimony before a Priest, and by 
pledging their Faith, either to the other, with joined Hands, 
that they will be faithful to and honour each other ; that 
they will love each other with all conjugal Affection, in all 
States and Conditions of Life ; and that they will never 
forsake each other unto their Lives' end. Secondly, This, 
their Consent and Promise, is confirmed and hallowed by 
the Priest ; as it is written {Seb. xiii. 4), Marriage is honour- 
able in all, and the Bed undefiled. 

Question 116. 
What are the Fruits of this Mystery ? 


First, That a Man might hereby be preserved from 
the Danger of Whoredom and Unchastity : For honourable 
Marriage was, therefore, instituted that the Fire of Lust 
might thereby be extinguished ; according to St. Paul (1 Cor. 
vii. 2), To avoid Fornication, let every Man have his own 
Wife, and let every Woman have her own Husband. Secondly, 
That is deservedly to be honoured, whereby the Procreation 
of Children is honestly provided for. Thirdly, That in 
Sickness, or any other Distress, the Husband might be to 
the Wife, and the Wife unto the Husband, a faithful Com- 
panion and Helpmate, because of that especial Affection 
and strict Bond of Love wherewith they are united. As 
testifieth the Scripture {Qen. ii. 24), For this Cause shall a 

88 The Orthodox Confession of the 

Man leave his Father and Mother, and shall cleave unto his 
own Wife, and they twain shall he one Flesh. 

Question 117. 
What is the seventh Mijstery of the Church ? 


The Holy Oil. This was instituted by Christ himself, 
for when he sent out his Disciples bj^ two and two {Mark 
vi. 13), They anointed with Oil many that were sick, and 
healed them. The same was afterwards received by , the 
universal Church, for a solemn Custom, as appears from the 
Epistle of St. James (chap. v. 14), If any be sick among you, 
let him call for the Elders of the Church, and let them pray 
over him, anointing him with Oil, in the name of the Lord ; 
and the Prayer of Faith shall save the Sick, and the Lord 
shall raise him up ; and if he hath committed Sins, they shall 
be forgiven him. 

Question 118. 

What is to be observed in this Mystery ? 


First, That this Mystery, and all belonging unto it, 
be only performed by Priests, and none others. Secondly, 
That the Oil be pure, and not prepared with any Mixtures ; 
and that the sick Person be an orthodox Christian ; and, 
also, that he have, beforehand, confessed all his Sins unto 
his spiritual Father. Thirdly, That whilst the Unction is 
administering, that Prayer be repeated wherein the Power 
and Efficacy of this Mystery is recited. 

Question 119, 
What are the Fruits of this Mystery ? 


We are taught by St. James, in the Place last mentioned, 
what are the Fruits and Benefits of this Mystery ; namely, 

Catholic and AjJostoUc Eastern Church, 89 

the Forgiveness of Sins, or the Healing of the Soul, and the 
restoring of Health unto the Body. And, however, although 
this latter is not always obtained, yet, nevertheless, the 
Forgiveness of Sins is always most assuredly thereby re- 

Question 120. 

What is the eleventh Article of the Faith ? 

I look for the Resurrection of the Dead. 

Question 121. 
What doth this Article of the Faith teach ? 


It teacheth the undoubted and most certain Resurrection 
of the human Body ; of the Good, and also of the Wicked : 
according to the Word of the Lord, saying {John v. 28), 
All who are in the Graves shall hear the Voice of the Son oj 
God, and shall come forth ; they that have done Good, unto the 
Resurrection of Life ; and they that have done Evil, unto the 
Resurrection of Damnation. And they shall arise with the 
same Bodies which they lived with before in this World ; 
according to that of Job (chap. xix. 25), I know that 
my Redeemer liveth, and that he shall stand at the latter 
Day upon the Earth; and though after my Skin Worms 
destroy this Body, yet in my Flesh shall I see God : Whom I 
shall see for myself, and mine Eyes shall behold, and not 
another, though my Reins be consumed within me. But this 
Body, which, as we have said, will be the very individual 
same which was laid down in the Grave — this Body shall 
be raised, incorruptible and immortal ; As saith St. Paul 
(1 Cor. XV. 51), We shall not all sleep, but we shall all be 
changed, in the twinkling of an Eye, at the last Trump ; fur 
the Trumpet shall sound, and the Dead shall be raised in- 
corruptible, and we shall be changed. For this Corruptible 
must put on Incorruption, and this Mortal must put on Im- 

90 The Orthodox Confession of the 

mortality. We are, moreover, to understand that the Soul 
of every one shall return into its own Body, and, together 
with it, shall receive the full and everlasting Reward of its 
Works. The Bodies of the Wicked, also, shall be made 
immortal, to receive eternal Punishment. 

Question 122. 
AVhat more doth this Article teach ? 


It teacheth every Christian to bear constantly in Mind 
these four things — Death, the Last Judgment, the Torments 
OF Hell, and, lastly, the everlasting Kingdom of Heaven. 

Question 123. 

What Benefit shall a Man receive by being mindful of 
these four Things ? ' 


A Man, by constantly reflecting on these things, will 
beget in himself Devotion, a Watchfulness against Sin, the 
Fear of God, a Dread of Hell Torments, and a Longing after 
the Joys of Heaven. And whosoever duly considers these 
things will undoubtedly take Care to prepare himself for 
the World to come : For, by thinking on that last Day 
wherein the whole World shall be judged, he will be mindful 
to make himself ready for the Account which he must then 
give of all his Thoughts, Words, and Actions. The Thoughts 
of Hell will quicken his Endeavours to avoid it, and the 
Consideration of Heaven must excite his utmost Earnest- 
ness to attain its Joys. 

Question 124. 
What is the twelfth Article of the Faith ? 

And the Life of the World to come. 

Calholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 01 

Question 125. 

What dotli the Church teach us in this Article of the 
Faith ? 


That iu the World to come, the Grace aud Blessing of 
God shall be given unto the Elect ; and Life eternal, filled 
with Joy and spiritual Delights : As the holy Scripture 
testifietli (1 Cor. ii. 9), Eye hath not seen, nor Ear heard, 
neither have entered into the Heart of Man, the Things which 
God hath prepared for them that love him. And again, to 
the same Effect (Eom. xiv. 17), The Kingdom of God is not 
Meat and Drink, hut Righteousness and Peace, and Jog in the 
Holy Ghost. 

Question 126. 

Shall the Soul only, or shall the Body also, together with 
the Soul, enjoy eternal Happiness ? 


As the Soul and Body jointly did good Works for the 
Hope of eternal Rewards, even so shall they jointly, and 
not separately, receive and enjoy the same triumphant 
Happiness and Felicity. For the Joy of the Soul and of 
the Body are not distinct and different things, but the 
same ; and, therefore, as the Body shall be glorified, so the 
whole Man, both Soul and Body, shall be made glorious ; 
and shall be made like the Angels, and equal unto them : 
According to the Scripture, wliich saith {Matth. xxii. 30), 
In the Besurrection they neither marry, nor are given in Mar- 
riage, but are as the Angels of God in Heaven. The Body 
shall be glorious, immortal, incorruptible, not needing Mesit 
or Drink ; and the Soul shall be the same : As saith the Scrip- 
ture (1 Cor. XV. 52), The Dead shall be raised, incorruptible, 
and me shall be changed. For this Corruptible must put on 
Incorruption, and this Mortal must put on Immortality. Now, 
this Joint Felicity will consist in contemplating the most 

92 The Orthodox Confession of the 

blessed Trinity, and in bearing a delightful Part in the 
spiritual Harmonj^ of the angelical Chorus : According to 
the Apostle (1 Cor. xiii. 12), Now we see as through a Glass, 
darkly ; but then Face to Face : Nov> I know in part ; but 
then shall I knoro even as also I am known. 

Now, whereas the Lord said unto Moses {Exod. xxxiii. 20), 
There shall no Man see my Face and live, this is to be un- 
derstood of this present Life, and of this corruptible Body, 
not as yet glorified ; and before that ultimate and most 
perfect Redemption. But after that complete Grlorification, 
in the future and eternal Life, after the Day of Judgment, 
God will so clothe us with Light, that we shall be able to 
behold the Light of God : According to the Psalmist {Psal. 
xxxvi. 9 j, With thee is the Fountain of Life, and in thy Light 
shall we see Light. And this Light, as it shall be plainly 
and fully beheld, will entirely satisfy us, and gratify, to the 
utmost, all our Desires of Wisdom and Beauty. For all 
Good is contained in the Contemplation and Profession of 
the supreme Good ; and the Perfection of Happiness, in the 
complete Enjoyment of it : As the divine Psalmist declareth 
{Psal. xvii. 15), When I awake up after thy Likeness, I shall 
be satisfied with it. 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 93 



Question 1. 

What is Hope ? 


Hope is a true Confidence in God, bestomed on the Heart 
of Man by the divine Enlightening and Inspiration, that he 
might never despair of God's Grace and Favour in granting 
his Petitions, whether they be for Pardon of his Sins, or for 
any other spiritual or temporal Good. Concerning which 
the Apostle sayeth thus {Heb. x. 35), Cast not away, therefore, 
your Confidence, which hath great Recompense of Reward. 
And elsewhere {Rom. viii. 24), We are saved by Hope ; but 
Hope that is seen is not Hope ; for what a Man seeth, why 
doth he yet hope for ? But if we hope for that we see not, 
then do we, through Patience, wait for it. 

Question 2. 
Whence have we this sure and certain Hope ? 


All our Hope is in the Lord Jesihs Christ ; as the Apostle 
sayeth (1 Tim. i. 1), By the Commandment of God our Saviour, 
and Lord Jesus Christ, which is our Hope. Because from 
him we receive all things : as Christ himself teacheth {John 
xiv. 13), Whatsoever ye shall ask in my Name, that will I do, 

94 The Orthodox Con/ission of the 

that the Father may be glorified in the Son. Now, hereby is 
to be understood the divine Grace ; for by Jesus Christ both 
Grace and Truth were given unto us : According to the 
blessed Scripture (John i. 17), For the Law was given by 
Moses, but Grace and Truth by Jesus Christ. And in this 
Grace is all our Hope founded. We also place great Con- 
fidence in the Observation of God's Commands, seeing 
Christ hath said {John xiv. 21), He that hath my Command- 
ments, and keepeth them, he it is that loveth me ; and he that 
loveth me shall be loved of my Father, and I mill love him, 
and mill manifest myself unto him. Moreover, our Hope is 
confirmed by the Communion of the awful and most holy 
Mysteries ; namely, of the Body and Blood of Christ ; 
whereby the Lord himself doth dwell in us : As himself 
testifieth (John vi. 56), He that eateth my Flesh and drinketh 
my Blood dwelleth in me, and I in him. Lastly, Our Faith 
is established by constant Prayer : As we are taught by the 
Apostle (James v. 13), Ls any among you afflicted? Let him 
pray. And another Apostle saith (Jude ver. 20), Ye, be- 
loved, building up yourselves on your most holy Faith, praying 
in the Holy Ghost, keep yourselves in the love of God, looking 
for the Mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ unto eternal Life. 

Question 3. 

What is necessary to be considered in order to a right 
Comprehension of this second Part of the Orthodox Con- 
fession ? 


In this second Part of the Orthodox Confession, it 
seemeth best that we should take into Consideration the 
Lord's Prayer and the Nine Beatitudes; for whatsoever 
we would obtain of God, we must ask both with a true and 
lively Faith, and also with Hope that God will assuredly 
grant out Petitions : According to the Apostle (1 Thess. v. 24), 
Faithful is he that calleth you ; who also will do it. In like 
manner, through Hope, we make these Beatitudes ours when 
we exercise those Virtues in hopes of obtaining the Blessings 
which are promised as a Reward for them. 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 95 

Question 4. 

What is Prayer ? 


Prayer is a certain Petition offered up to God, out of an 
ardent Faith, with the Hope of obtaining that which we ask, 
according to his Will. Or it is thus to be defined : Prayer 
is a lifting up of our Minds and Wills to God, whereby we 
praise him or beseech him, or give Thanks unto him for his 
Benefits towards us. 

.Question 5. 
How ought a Man to prepare himself for praying ? 


It is to be observed that there be three principal Kinds 
of Prayer. 

First, When we give Thanks to God for his Benefits unto 
us, as the ancient People of Israel gave Thanks unto God 
for their Deliverance out of Egypt. In like manner, we 
ought, at all Times, to give Thanks for the great Benefits we 
have received at his Hands, but more especially for that he 
hath delivered us from the Bondage of the most cruel Enemy 
of our Souls : According to the Apostle (1 Thess. v. 17), 
Pray without ceasing ; in everything give Thanks ; for this is 
the Will of God in Christ Jesus concerning you. And again 
(1 Cor. i. 4), I thank my God always on your Behalf for the 
Grace of God, which is given you by Jesus Christ. And also 
elsewhere (Coloss. i. 12), Giving Thanks unto the Father, who 
hath made us meet to be Partakers of the Inheritance of the 
Saints in Light; who hath delivered us from the Power of 
Darkness, and hath translated tis into the Kingdom of his 

dear Son. 

The second Kind of Prayer is that whereby we beseech 
God for Pardon of our Sins ; that is, that he would deliver 
us from the Punishment due to them, and that he would 
pour out upon our Souls and Bodies the Abundance of his 

96 The Orthodox Confession of the 

holy Grace. Of this Kind, we oifer up our Prayers both for 
Ourselves and for our Neighbour ; according to the Apostle 
(Coloss. i. 9), For this Cause we also, since the Day we heard 
it, do not cease to pray for you, and to desire that ye might 
be filled with the Knowledge of his Will, in all Wisdom and 
spiritual Understanding. 

The third Kind of Prayer is that wherein we praise and 
magnify the Lord our God for his excellent Majesty and 
immortal Glory; according to that of the holy Prophet 
{Psal. cxlv. 2), Every Day will I give Thanks unto Thee ; and 
T will praise thy Name for ever and ever. Great is the Lord, 
and Marvellous, worthy to be praised ; there is no End of his 
Greatness. One Generation shall praise thy Works unto an- 
other, and declare thy Power. Of this Kind, especially, is 
the Great Doxology {Glory be to God in the highest, &c.) which 
we daily say or sing in the Church. 


Wliat is further necessary in order to pray ? 


It is requisite that when we go to pray we should rightly 
l)repare ourselves ; namely, with Soberness, Temperance, and 
Reverence: As we are taught by the Apostle {Tit. ii. 12), 
That, denying Ungodliness and worldly Lusts, we shoidd live 
soberly, righteously, and godly in this present World ; and 
also with Compunction of Heart, as the same Apostle says 
elsewhere {Coloss. iii. 16), Let the Word of Christ dwell in you 
richly in all Wisdom ; teaching and admonishing one another 
in Psalms, and LLymns, and spiritual Songs; singing with 
Grace in your Hearts unto the Lord. But all Wrath and 
Malice must be put away from him that goeth to pray : 
According to the Scripture {Matth. vi. 15), Tf ye forgive not 
Men their Trespasses, neither mill your Father forgive your 
Trespasses. If, therefore, there be any one that hath aught 
against us, we must first be reconciled unto him : According 
to the Scripture {Matth. v. 23), Therefore, if thou bring thy 
Gift to the Altar, and there rememberest that thy Brother hath 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 97 

ought against thee, leave there thy Gift before the Altar, and 
go thy Way ; first be reconciled to thy Brother, and then come 
and offer thy Gift. We must also, when we are praying, put 
far away from us all other Thoughts but those of Devotion, 
that our Prayer may he pure and acceptable to God ; lest 
Grod pronounce of us as he did of the Hypocrites {Mark vii. 
6), This People honoureth me with their hips, but their Heart 
is far from me. And further, lest we be liable to that of the 
Psalmist {Psal. cix. 7), Let his Prayer be turned into Sin. 

Question 7. 
What is the Lord's Prayer ? 


Our Father which art in Heaven; Hallowed be Thy Name. 
Thy Kingdom come. Thy Will ie done on Earth, as it is in 
Heaven, &c. 

Question 8. 

Into how many Parts is the Lord's Prnyer divided ? 


Three. The Preface, or Invocation ; the Petitions; and the 

Question 9. 

What is the Preface, or Invocation ? 

Owr Father which art in Heaven. 

Question 10. 
What meaneth this Invocation ? 


First, It teacheth that whoso prayeth unto God ought to 
appear before him, not only as his Creature, but also as his 


98 The Orthodox Confession of the 

Son by Grace ; for unless he be his Son he cannot call upon 
God as his Father. Now, this Grace of Adoption, whereby 
we are made the Sons of God, we receive from Christ, who 
hath bestowed it on those that believe in him : As saith the 
Scripture {John i. 12), As many as received him, to them gave 
he Power to lecome the Sons of God. And elsewhere (Gal. iv. 
6), Because ye are Sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit of his 
Son unto your Hearts, crying, Aiha, Father. And for this 
Reason, therefore, we call God our Father. 

Secondly, It is requisite that he who goeth about to pray 
should be a Son of the Catholic and Orthodox Church ; for 
whosoever hath not the Church for a Mother, neither can he 
liave God for his Father: As it is said (Matth. xviii. 17), 
Tell it unto the Church ; hut if he neglect to hear the Church, let 
him he tcnto thee as an heathen Man and a Publican. 

Thirdly, Let not the devout Petitioner doubt but that 
he shall receive that which he asketh for, seeing he prayeth 
unto the most indulgent and merciful, as the common Father 
of all : According to the Scripture {Licke vi. 36), Be ye, there- 
fore, merciful, as your Fo>ther which is in Heaven is mercifid, 
who not only doth not deny us, but even doth himself stir 
us up to ask of him, and teacheth us how ; and with infinite 
Mercy accepts our Prayers, provided only they be offered up 
with Humility and Sincerity : For he well knows wherefore 
we ask. And the Scripture says {Matth. vi. 8), Tour Father 
knoweth whereof ye have Need, hefore ye ask him. And in 
another Place {Matth. vii. 11), If ye then, being evil, know how 
to give good Gifts to your Children, how much more shall your 
Father tohieh is in Heaven give good Things to them that 
ask him ! 

FcMrthly, This Introduction, or Invocation, teacheth us, that 
as God is the Father of us all, in like Manner we, who are 
of the Faithful, should be unto each other as Brothers ; and 
not only pray to God for ourselves, but also for our Brethren, 
i nterceding for each other : According to the Scripture {James 
v. 16), Pray one for another, that ye may be healed ; namely, 
to God, who is our Common Father; as Christ himself 
teacheth us {Matth. xxiii. 9), Call no Man your Father upon the 
Earth, for one is your Father which is in Heaven. And when 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 99 

he beholds this our brotherly Love (which he so frequently 
recommends to us in his holy Gospel), he is both pleased 
with it, as a Father, and, also, more induced thereby to hear 
us when we pray, and to grant our Petitions. 

Fifthly, By these Words, which art in Heaven, we are taught 
that when we pray we should raise our Minds and Thoughts 
wholly above all earthly and worldly Things, and fix them 
entirely on Heaven and Things incorruptible. Nevertheless, 
God, mir Father, is not only in Heaven,- but he is present in 
all Places and filleth all Things : But whereas his Grace 
and Glory more abundantly are manifest in Heaven, it is, 
therefore, said to be his Throne : According to that of the 
Psalmist, where he said {Psal. xi. 4), The Lord's Seat is in 
IIeaven,^z.iidi also (Psal. ciii. 19), Hie Lord hath prepared his 
Seat in Heaven, and his Kingdom ruleth over all.. 

Question 11. 

How many Petitions are contained in the second Part of 
this Prayer of our Lord ? 



Question 12. 

What is the first Petition in the Lord's Prayer ? 

Hallowed he thy Name. 

Question 13. 
What is contained in this Petition ? 


First, We pray unto God that we may lead a Life adorned 
with Virtue and good Works, that Men may be excited to 
glorify the Name of God by the Purity and Holiness of our 

100 The Orthodox Confession of the 

Lives : According to that of St. Matthew (chap. v. 6), Let 
your Light so shine before Men that they may see yoxir good 
Works, and glorify your Father which is in Heaven. 

Secondly, We ask that not only our whole Lives may be 
to the Glory of God, but also that all those who do not 
know the true God, nor believe in him, may repent, and 
come to the knowledge of him, that the Name of God be 
glorified, both in them and by them. We also beseech the 
Lord our God, in this Petition, for those who bear indeed 
the Name of Christians, but who live ungodly and scandalous 
Lives, whereby our holy Religion and God himself is blas- 
phemed : Of whom the Apostle saith (2 Tim. iii. 5), Having 
a Form of Godliness, but denying the Power thereof. And else- 
where {Bom. ii. 24.), The Name of God is blasphemed among the 
Gentiles through you. For the Sake of these it is that, in this 
Petition, God is besought ; that such may turn from their 
Wickedness, and bring forth good Fruits, leading for the 
future a sober and godly Life ; and so the Name of God, 
by these Means, also may be hallowed. Moreover, we are to 
understand, that although the Name of God is in itself most 
holy without our Glorification, yet it is said to be hallowed 
by us, and in us, when by Piety and Holiness of Life we 
sanctify ourselves to the Glory of God's Name. 

Question 14 1 
What is the second Petition ? 

Thy Kingdom come. 

Question 15. r 
What is contained in this Petition? 


Herein we pray to God, that by his Grace and Justice 
and Mercy he would reign in us altogether, especially in our 
Hearts, |and not suffer Sin to have any Dominion over us : 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 101 

As it is written {Rom. vi. 12), Let not Sin, therefore, reign in 
your mortal Body, that ye should obey it in the Lusts thereof. 

Secondly, This Petition expresses that a Man who is in the 
State of G-race with God, and feels the heavenly Joy in his 
Mind, careth not for this World, but is only solicitous and 
wishful to become an Inhabitant in the heavenly Kingdom : 
As the Apostle, speaking of himself, saith {Philip, i. 23), / 
desire to depart, and to he with Christ. 

Thirdly, We beg of God that he would please to hasten 
his second Coming, wherein the Son of Man shall appear in 
his Q-lory {Matth. xxv. 31), and the Resurrection of the Dead, 
and the Day of Judgment, by which the Kingdom of this 
World and the Enemy of our Souls may be taken away : and 
the Kingdom of Heaven come, that God may be all in all ; 
as the Apostle speaks in 1 Corinthians xv. 28. 

Question 16. 
What is the third Petition ? 

Thy Will he done on Earth, as it is in Heaven. 

Question 17. 
What is contained in this third Petition? 


First, We beseech God that he would not suffer us to live 
in this World after our own Wills, but that he would guide 
and govern us by his Will and Pleasure. 

Secondly, We pray that neither we nor others might resist 
or dislike the Will of God, but that, as the Angels in 
Heaven submit unto and obey the divine Will in all Things, 
without any Delay or Denial, so, likewise, on Earth, that 
all Men may be obedient unto God without Murmuring, and 
with all Pteadiness and Thanksgiving. 

Thirdly, In this Petition we express our Belief that 
nothing can affect us, God's Elect, without the divine Will 

102 The Orthodox Confession of the 

■uid Permission, whether it be in relation to the Holiness 
and Innocence with which we ought to pass our Lives, or to 
Persecutions and Temptations of the Enemy. Insomuch 
that the Lord not only taketh Care of our Persons, but of 
even the very Hairs of our Head : According to the Scrip- 
ture {Luhe xii. 7), Even the Hairs of your Head are all 
numbered. And again (Luke xxi. 18), There shall not an 
Hair of your Head perish. 

Question 18. 
What is i\iQ fourth Petition ? 

Give us this Bay our daily Bread. 

Question 19. 
What is contained in this Petition ? 


First, That divine and most excellent Food of our Souls, 
the Word of God, is here meant ; concerning which the 
Scripture thus teacheth us {Matth. iv. 4), Man shall not live 
by Bread alone, but by every Word that proceedeth out of the 
Mouth of God. We therefore ask of God that he would keep 
us from Want and Famine of his holy Word ; that is, the 
Doctrine of Christ, without which Doctrine our inward 
Man would surely die, as if it were perished of Hunger. 
Therefore we very properly, in this Petition, remember that 
Beath of the Said which befalleth those who refuse or neglect 
to hear the Word of Grod and divine Instruction, and 
thereby set the bad Example of au ill Life. 

Secondly, Herein is included that other Food of our Souls, 
namely, the Communion of the Body and Blood of Christ ; 
for so the Lord hath spoken concerning it (John vi. 55), 
My Flesh is Meat indeed, and my Blood is Drink indeed: 
whosoever eateth my Flesh and drinketh my Blood, he droelleth 
in me, and I in him. Wherefore, that we may worthily 
partake of this Food, we do, in this Petition, beseech God 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 103 

that, out of his Mercy aud Favour to Mankind, he would 
be pleased to bestow himsejf upon us. And when we have 
these two Kinds of Food, then we have the Kingdom of 
God within us (Luke xvii. 21); and then God, of his own 
Accord, will give unto us all such temporal and worldly 
Things as the Weakness and Poverty of our mortal Con- 
dition make necessary for us : As it is written (Mattk. vi. 33), 
Seek ye first the Kingdom of Qod, and his Righteousness, and 
all these Things shall be added unto you. 

Thirdly, Under the Name of Bread, in this Petition, are 
comprehended all Things which are necessary for us in this 
present Life, both with regard to our Substance and our 
Preservation. However, let every one remember that Super- 
fluities and Luxury are not hereby prayed for, but only a 
just and proper Sufficiency ; for those Things which minister 
unto our Voluptuousness, and are the Instruments of Sen- 
suality, are no other than the Seeds of Misery and Punish- 
ment. Whereof the Apostle, St. Paul, thus speaketh (Bom. 
xiii. 13), Let us walk honestly as in the Day, not in Rioting 
and Drunkenness, not in Cfmrnbering and Wantonness. And 
elsewhere (1 Tim. vi. 8), Having Food and Raiment, let us he 
therewith content. Now, by the Words This Day is to be 
understood this present Life, while we continue in this 
World ; for in that which is to come we shall enjoy the 
Presence itself and Sight of God, and the Happiness from 
thence arising. 

Question 20. 

What is the fifth Petition ? 


And forgive us our Trespasses, as we forgive those that 
Trespass against us. 

Question 21. 

What is contained iii this Petition ? 

First, We do, in this Petition, ask of God that he would 
forgive us our Sins, especially those which we have com- 

104 The Orthodox Confession of the 

mitted siace our Baptism ; as well mortal Sins as all others 
whereby we have offended Grod and our Neighbour ; by 
Thought only or by a full Design and Intention of Sin, or 
by Words, or by Actions. 

Secondly, Whereas in this Petition we say, Forgive us 
our Trespasses, as we forgive those that Trespass against us, 
now we do hereby engage our Faith that we will also for- 
give our Enemies. He, therefore, who doth not forgive his 
Neighbour, whatsoever he hath committed against him, let 
him not use this Petition ; for he may not hope to have his 
Sins forgiven. Nay, further, his very Prayer will become a 
Sin, according to the Psalmist {Psal. cix. 6), Let his Prayer 
be turned into Sin. And truly with Justice, for if we will 
not forgive our Brethren their trifling Offences against us, 
how can it be expected that God should forgive our Sins 
against him, which will bear no Comparison to the Tres- 
passes which we resent to our Brethren ; seeing we are 
daily, nay hourly, giving just Cause for God's Anger 
against us ? 

Question 22. 

What is the sixth Petition ? 

And lead us not into Temptation. 

Question 23. 
What is contained in this Petition ? 


First, We pray to God that we may be free from all 
Temptation ; but if not from all, at least from those which 
exceed our Strength. Of these, some arise from the World, 
some from the Devil, and some from our own Flesh, and 
entice us to Sin. Again, others are inflicted by Tyrants who 
solicit and harass the Church of God by erroneous Doctrines, 
by deceitful Flatteries and Falsehood, by pretended Mir- 
acles, by the Allurements of promised Riches and Honours ; 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 105 

m fine, by tyrannical Force and Persecutions ; by open 
Violence and Kapiue, and despoiling us of our Possessions, 
and by loading us with Shame and Reproach. All which 
we woefully see in these our Days. Furthermore, We be- 
seech God, in this Petition, that if we be called to pour 
out our Blood, or to lay down our Lives, for his most holy 
Name's Sake, for the holy Church, which is his Spouse, and 
for the Truth of the Gospel : That then he would be pleased 
to strengthen us, and support us with his Grace, whereby 
we might be enabled to endure and overcome the most 
unusual or excessive Torments with Constancy and Resolu- 
tion, and obtain the Crown of Martyrdom in Heaven ; and 
that he would be pleased not to let us suffer Things greater 
than we can bear. 

Question 24. 

What is the seventh Petition ? 

But deliver us from Evil. 

■Question 25. 
What is contained in this Petition ? 


Eirst, We herein pray to God to deliver us from all Kinds 
of Evil, especially from Sin, and from all Wickedness that 
provokes the Wrath of God. Secondly, That his Grace 
might accompany us, and keep us from falling into his 
Displeasure (Psal. vi. 1), That he ivould not rebuke us in his 
Indignation, neither chasten us in his Displeasure, for our Sins ; 
but] that we might {Psal. xcv. 2) come before his Presence with 
Thanksgiving, and show ourselves glad in him with Psalms. 
Ill this Petition we also pray that we may be delivered 
from all sorts of Evil and Mischiefs whatsoever that are 
hard and difficult to be borne by the Children of Men : Such 
as Famine, Pestilence, War, Fire, and such like. All 
which we hereby beseech God to turn away from us, and 

106 The Orthodox Confession of the 

to grant us his mercifal Loving-kiadness. More especially 
we pray that in the Hour of Death he would protect us 
IVoni all Insults of the Enemy of our Souls, and that he 
would give us Grace to fight piously and securely under the 
Protection of his Favour, and the Gruide and Safeguard of 
his Angels. For whosoever departeth out of Life in such a 
Manner, that Person is happy undoubtedly. It therefore 
behoveth us, in the highest Degree, that we should all 
most earnestly ask of Grod that we may be defended from 
the Temptations and Assaults of the Devil in our last 
Moments. Lastly, We pray, in this Petition, that we may 
be delivered from the Devil and Hell Torments. 

Question 26. 
What is the thii'd Fart of the Lord's Prayer 1 


This Conclusion, For thine is the Kingdom, and the Power, 
and the Glory, for ever, Amen. 

Question 27. 
What is contained in this Part, the Conclusion ? 


This Conclusion is twofold, in the first Part correspond- 
ing to the Fnvocation. For as that makes us hope that we 
shall certainly obtain what we ask of Grod as we ought, 
since he is our Father of whom we ask it ; so this Conclusion 
teaches to expect that our proper Petition will be granted, 
because the whole Universe belougeth unto this our Father. 
He is the Kiug of the whole World. To him all created 
Things are subject. His is the Power, and the Glory is 
his ; which Power and Grlory nothing can resist, whether 
in Heaven or on Earth. He, therefore, can assuredly give 
us all Things, whatsoever we ask with Faith and Hope; for 
this Cause only, the eternal Glory of his Name : As it is 
expressed in these Words, And the Glory, for ever. The 
second Part of this Conclusion is the Word Amen ; in which 

Catliolic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 107 

Word we pray that whatsoever we have asked may be 
granted unto us according to our Desire : As the Apostle 
saith (1 John v. 14), This is the Confidence that we have in 
him, that if we ask anything according to his Will, he heareth 
us. And if we hnoiu that he hear us, wliatsoever we ash, we know 
that we Jiave the Petition that we desired of him. 

Question 28. 
Is this Conclusion united to the Lord's Prayer t 


It is certain that Christ himself, concluding his Prayer, 
which he taught us, ends with these Words ; as appears 
from St. Matthew (chap. vi. 13). And the Sense of them 
shows plainly that they are no ways inconsistent with the 
Lord's Prayer ; rather that the Prayer is greatly strengthened 
and perfected by them, seeing it is That God we call upon 
whose Power extends over the whole Universe, and unto 
whom all things are subject. And although lay Persons do 
not use this Conclusion, that hindereth not, but that in the 
Public Prayers of the Church, and in private Devotions, 
where a Priest is present, he should use them for adding 
the greater Weight unto his Prayer. Neither will it be 
amiss for a lay Person to use them, if no Priest be present, 
any more than it would for him to recite any other Part 
of the Gospel. And it were better never to separate tliese 
Words from the Lord's Prayer, it being evident that the 
Church orders them to be pronounced by the Priest only in 
•the public Divine Service, only for the Sake of adding the 
greater Solemnity to this Devotion. 

Question 29. 

Forasmuch as the Beatitudes do very much establish and 
confirm our Faith, I pray, what be they? 


The Beatitudes which our Lord Christ hath taught us in the 
fifth Chapter of St. Matthew's Gospel are nine in number; 

108 The Orthodox Confession of the 

on which St. Chrysostom thus commenteth (Homily on 1 
Cor. XV. 28), Moses delivered ten Commandments, but Jesus, 
the Lord of Moses, gave nine Beatitudes. And again, The Law 
gave unto us ten Commandments, hut Jesus nine Beatitudes, 
forming thereby a thrice threefold Crown. 

Question 30. 
What is the first Beatitude 1 


Blessed are the Poor in Spirit, for theirs is the Kingdom of 

Question 31. 

What Doctrine doth this Beatitude contain ? 


It relates to Riches and the good Things of this World ; 
which, if it please God to bestow them on us, we should use, 
not as if they were our own, but as only being the Stewards 
and Dispensers of them, and not give ourselves up to great 
Anxiousness or to Covetousness : As we are admonished by 
the holy Psalmist (Psal. Ixii. 10), If Riches increase, set not 
your Heart upon them. We ought to imitate the ancient 
Christian Perfection, and have nothing distinct, but all 
Things in common : After the Example of those Christians 
who. lived in the Infancy of the Church, of whom the 
Scripture testifies {Acts iv. 32), The Multitude of them that 
believed luere of one Heart and of one Sotd ; neither said any 
of them that ought of the Things ivhich he possessed was his own, 
hut they had all Things common. And after, at the 34th 
Verse, Neither ivas there any among them that lacked; for as 
many as were Possessors of Lands or Houses sold them, and 
brought the Prices of the Things that were sold, and laid them 
dovm at the Apostles' Feet; and Distribution was made unto 
every Man according as he had Need. And again (Acts ii. 44), 
All that believed were together, and had all Things common. 1 1 
is this Virtue that is called Poverty of Spirit. However, it is 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 109 

requisite and allowable that every one retain to himself so 
much as is necessary for his due and proper Support and 
Accommodation, without Luxury and Extravagance. In this 
Virtue the Monks and Religious are deservedly allowed to 
excel, seeing they are not to be careful for anything as 
their own, not even for necessary Food and Clothing ; but 
they suffer the Want of all Things with Patience, in Hopes 
of greater Rewards in Heaven : Having before their Eyes 
the Words of the Apostle (1 Cor. iv. 11), Even unto this 
present Hour we loth hunger and thirst, and are naked, and are 
buffeted, and have no certain Dwelling-place ; and labour, ivorhing 
with our own Sands : being reviled, we bless ; being persecuted, we 
suffer it ; being defamed, we entreat ; we are made as the Filth 
of the World, the Offscouring of all Things, even unto this Day. 
For Sufferings like these Christ offers the Kingdom of Heaven 
as a Reward, Nevertheless, such as do possess Wealth, 
gotten innocently and with Justice, will be also Partakers 
of Salvation and eternal Life, provided they possess their 
Riches in Righteousness ; namely, if they use them for the 
Relief of the Necessities of the Church, in Almsgiving to 
the Poor, the Stranger, the Sick, and whosoever is in Need. 
In like Manner as Zacchceus did unto Christ himself when he 
spoke unto him thus {Luke xix. 8), Behold, Lord, the Half of 
my Goods L give unto the Poor, and if I have taken any Thing 
from any Man by false Accusation, I restore him fourfold. 
But Spendthrifts, who by Debauchery and Profuseness are 
reduced to extreme Poverty, are in no Sort the Object of 
this Beatitude, such Poverty being rather the proper Punish- 
ment of their Prodigality and unjust Abuse of what they 
had. Nevertheless they are not to be rejected from the 
Alms of good Men, and if they reform and practise the 
Virtues of Poverty, they will also receive the Reward of this 
Beatitude from Grod. 

Question 32. 

What is the second Beatitude ? 

Blessed are those who mourn, for they shall be comforted. 

110 The Orthodox Confession of the 

Question 33. 
What doth this Beatitude teach ? 


First, It teacheth that Lhose of the Faithful are blessed 
who through their whole lives mourn and weep for their old 
Sins and Offences, whereby they have offended God and their 
Neighbour ; according to the Words of the Prophet {Jer. 
i. 4), The Children of Is7-ael shall come, and the Children of 
Judah shall come ; going iveeping, they shall go and seek the 
Lord their God. But they have no Part in this Beatitude 
who mourn and weep only because of some worldly Grief or 
Misfortune. Nor they who, when they are condemned to 
suffer the Punishment due to their Crimes, weep and mourn ; 
not because they have sinned, but because of the Fear of 
their Punishments which they must undergo for them. Nor 
they, likewise, who are concerned only on Account of having 
lost some perishable Thing or other, and the like. Secondly, 
This Beatitude teacheth us that those are blessed who, with 
unfeigned Sorrow, and Tears shed for the Sins of others, 
appease the Wrath of God towards them, and pour forth 
their Prayers before him that he would vouchsafe unto them 
the Grace to repent of their Sins : Namely, that he would 
bring back Heretics to the Communion of the Church, and that 
he would convert the Wicked from their Evil and irregular 
Lives to a sober and orderly Course of Life. Thirdly, By 
this Beatitude we are taught that those are blessed who are 
oppressed by the great and powerful Ones of the World, and 
unjustly despoiled of their Goods : Which Sufferings they 
may not endeavour to revenge, but with Bitterness of Heart 
and Mourning, pray to God for Deliverance and Safety, plac- 
ing all their Hope and Confidence in God's Mercy, which they 
shall receive together with abundance of Consolation, being 
therein rightly and truly Partakers of the divine Grace. 
Those also are comprehended in this Beatitude who are 
afflicted for the orthodox Faith and the Sake of the Church : 
Such are all Martyrs and the like. 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. Ill 

Question 34. 
What is the third Beatitude ? 

Blessed are the Meeh, for they shall inherit the Earth. 

Question 35. 
What doth this Beatitude teach ? 


This Beatittcde teacheth us, First, That we should yield a 
ready and sincere Obedience, with this Virtue of Meekuess 
and Humility, uuto God and the Church of Christ, and also 
unto our Superiors, following the Example of our most 
meek Lord, Jes^is Christ. And wlieu we pay this Obedience 
unto our Superiors, we should propose within ourselves that 
it is to Christ and for his Sake. So we should also refer 
to Christ the Respect and Reverence which we show unto 
his Priests, our spiritual Pastors. Secondly, This Beatitude 
teacheth us that they are blessed who are not grievous or 
troublesome unto any Man ; who do not rob any of their 
good Name, and are not Censurers and Condemners of 
others ; but esteeming themselves as the meanest, are 
always ready to condemn their own Life and Actions, and 
think their own good Deeds to be vile and unworthy. How- 
ever, if those whose Duty it is to reprove others should, 
through the Warmth of their Zeal, use some harsh Expres- 
sions in correcting a Sinner, not out of Contempt or Spite- 
fulness, but for the Grood of his spiritual Welfare, such an 
One is not, however, exempted from this Beatitude, seeing 
he doth that which is his Duty : As the Apostle teacheth 
(Gal. vi. 1), Brethren, if a Man he overtaken in a Fault, yc 
which are spiritual restore such an One in the Spirit of Meek- 
ness ; considering thyself, lest thou also he tempted. But if an}' 
one say that it is not possible for a mortal Man thus to 
quell his Anger, let such an One know that he ought not 

112 The Orthodox Confession of the 

to pour out his "Wrath and Anger on his Neighbour, but on 
the Devil, who is the Tempter and Instigator of Men to 
all Kind of Evil. Those, therefore, who are endued with 
this Virtue shall receive the promised Inheritance of the 
Earth, an Abundance of God's Goodness in this Life, and 
eternal Happiness in that which is to come : According to 
the Scripture, which saith (jPsal. xxvii. 15), I believe verily to 
see the Goodness of the Lord in the Zand of the Living. 

Question 36. 
What is the fourth Beatitude? 


Messed are those luho hunger and thirst after Righteousness, 
for they shall he filled. 

Question 37. 

What doth this Beatitude teach ? 


It teacheth us that they are blessed Avho, having sustained 
an Injury, cannot obtain Eedress from Justice, either be- 
cause of their Eeligion or their Poverty ; or for want of 
Health, or because they are Strangers ; or for that their 
Adversary is too powerful, or through any other unjust 
Cause. Wherefore those who are set in the Seat of Justice, 
aud whose Office it is to judge, ought to be most conscien- 
tious and careful that the Poor, the Widow, and the Orphan 
be not oppressed with unrighteous Judgment, remembering 
what the Scripture saith unto them {Isa. i. 17), Learn to do 
well, seek Judgment, relieve the Oppressed, Judge the Father- 
less, plead for the Widow. Which Duties if they neglect, then 
those who suffer Oppression are said to hunger and thirst 
after Justice or Righteousness, and they are the Objects 
of this Beatitude. And unto these unjust Judges God will 
render severe Punishment : According to the Scripture 
{Psal. X. 19), Lord, thou hast heard the Desire of the Poor ; thou, 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 113 

preparest their Heart, and thine Ear hearkeneth thereunto. To 
help the Fatherless and Poor unto their Bight, that the Man of 
the Earth he no more exalted against them. 

Question 38. 
What is the fifth Beatitude ? 

Blessed are the Merciful, for they shall receive Mercy. 

Question 39. 
What doth this Beatitude teach us ? 

That they are blessed who discharge the duties of Mercy. 

Question 40. 
What are the Works of Mercy ? 


The Works of Mercy are twofold, some regarding the So'ul, 
and others relating to the Body (Theophylact on the 26th 
Chapter of Matthew). 

Question 41. 

What are those Offices of Humanity which respect the Body? 


They are seven. First, To give Food unto the Hungry, 
according to the Saying of Christ (Mcttth. xxv. 35), I was an 
hungered, and ye gave me Meat. To those, namely, who are in 
Necessity, und who could not supply their Needs by their 
own Labour. And for the Discharge of this Duty we must 
use what we have earned by our Labour, or otherwise gotten 
with Honesty : As the Scripture teaches us (Prov. iii. 9), 
Honour the Lord with thy Substance, and with the first Fruits 
of all thine Increase. But we are not to confine our Alms to 


114 Tlic Orthodox Confession of llie 

those only who apply to us for them publiclj' in the Streets, 
nor yet to those only who lie sick in the public Hospital, but 
we must also extend them to those who, through Modesty, 
or any other Impediment, cannot ask our Alms. And we 
must be cautious, to the utmost, that these our good Deeds 
may be as secret as possible, lest we receive our Eeward in 
the Praises of Men : According to the Words of our Lord 
Christ (Matth. vi. 2), When thou doest thine Alms, do not sound 
a Trumpet hefore thee, as the Hypocrites do in the Synagogues 
and in the Streets, that they may have Glory of Man. Verily I 
say unto you, They have their Reward. 

Question 42. 
What is the second Act of Mercy ? 


The second Act of Mercy is to give Drink to the Thirsty ; 
namely, to those who, through Poverty or Disability of Body, 
cannot produce wherewithal to quench their Thirst. And 
hereby is meant and intended all Sorts of Drink, insomuch 
that whoso giveth only a Cup of cold Water to him that hath 
need of Water, the same shall be a Partaker of this Beati- 
tude : According to what our Saviour himself said in the 
Scripture {Mark ix. 41), Whosoever shall give you a Gup of 
Water to drink in my Name, because ye belong to Ghrist, verily 
I say unto you, he shall not lose his Beiuard. lu this Duty are 
included all those Services and good Offices of any Kind that 
are done unto the Poor and Needy : Those, namely, who 
cannot by their own Labour and Care provide for the Neces- 
sities of Hunger and Thirst. 

Question 43. 
Wiiat is the tldrd JVork of Jlercy ? 


The third Work of Alercy is to clothe the Naked. Those 
obtain this Beatitude who, with a benevolent Mind toward 
their Fellow-Creatures, relieve them in their Distress and 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Chvrch. 115 

clothe those who are Destitute of G-arments. Uuto sucli 
will Christ, at the Day of Judgment, render a Reward, and 
say unto them (3fatth. xxv. 34), Come, ye Blessed of my Father, 
inherit the Kingdom prepared for you from the Beginning of the 
World. And hereby, not ouly those are meant who are des- 
titute of all Clothing, but also they whose Clothing is not 
sufficient to defend them from Cold. And they, likewise, 
who, through hard Fortune, scarcely can support themselves 
through the Want of proper Clothes, to whom the Merciful 
Man will render the Offices of Humanity, and supply their 
Necessities with suitable Necessaries, to protect them from 
the Injuries of Weather. 

Question 44. 
What is the fourth Work of Mercy ? 


To visit those who are in Prison. lu the Discharge of 
which Daty let him not be anxious whether the Person 
deserved or not to be cast into Prison, or who he be : For 
whosoever he be, or whatever his Crime, nevertheless we 
owe this Duty to him for the Sake of Christ our Lord ; and 
we must visit and comfort him, lest he fall into Despair. 

Question 45. 
Wiiat is the fifth Work of Mercy ? 


That we should Visit the Sick. And we must discharge 
this Duty without inquiring whether the sick Person be our 
Neio-hbour, or Friend, or Kindred, or Acquaintance ; for it 
is incumbent on us to visit those who are sick, although 
utterly unknown to us, especially those who are ill in the 
public Hospital. First, We should comfort the Sick, by 
expressing our Concern for his Distress. Secondly, By ex- 
horting the Sick to bear his Afflictions patiently, and that 
he should receive his Visitation of the Lord without Mur- 
murino- or Discontent ; but rather that he should with his 

116 The Orthodox Confession of the 

Heart and Voice give Thanks unto God, who thus ex- 
presseth his Favour and Kindness towards him, and firmly 
repose his Trust on God's Mercy for being restored to 
Health. Moreover, we should induce the sick Person to 
confess his Sins with a broken and contrite Heart, and to 
receive the blessed Sacrament of the Eucharist, and the Holy 
Oil, as the Church directs. For these Mysteries uot only 
many Ways promote the Salvation of the Soul, but also 
contribute to the Healing of the Body. Furthermore, we 
should offer up our Prayers to God for them, and also 
recommend them to the public Prayers of the Church. And 
if the sick Person be so poor that he cannot apply unto the 
Church, then it is the Duty of the Pious and Well-disposed 
to call upon his own Ghostly Father, that he may supply 
his spiritual Necessities. Above all, let him be sure to 
admonish the Sick earnestly, that he do not use any unlaw- 
ful and superstitious Means for his Kecovery, such as the 
Church hath forbidden ; such as magical Charms and In- 
cantations, and Contracts with the Devil ; for from these 
he will receive infinitely more Hurt than Advantage or 
Benefits to his Health : But, on the contrary, that he 
should place all his Trust and Confidence in God's Mercy 
only, and make Use of such Medicines as the skilful 
Physician prepares or directs for him. Whoso after this 
Manner shall visit the Sick shall, according to this Beati- 
tude, be blessed both in this World and that which is 
to come. However, when the Sick Person is ill 'of any 
contagious Disease, or of the Plague itself, then the devout 
Christian may take such Measures in the Discharge of this 
Duty as may best conduce to the Safety of his Life, and do 
that which himself cannot in Person, by the Administration 
of others who can. 

Question 46. 

What is the sixth Work of Mercy ? 


To receive the Stranger into one's House, with Cheerful- 
ness and Hospitality ; especially those who, being on their 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 117 

Way to visit holy Places, that they may there pay their 
Vows and Worship, turn in unto us. Such are all religious 
Mendicants and Travellers, whose Necessities he must relieve 
according to his Abilities that desires to be an Inheritor of 
this Beatitude; and more especially those who are sick and 
destitute in the public Streets, and are forced to beg by the 

Question 47. 

What is the seventh Work of Mercy ? 


To bury the Dead. And this Duty we should perform 
with Promptitude and Readiness, especially to those who 
die in extreme Poverty, on whom we should bestow such 
Things as are requisite for their Sepulchre, according to the 
Manner of pious Christians : as Tobias did (Toh. ii.). When 
we perform this Duty to our Friends and Relations, we must 
take care to have orthodox and pious Men, who may accom- 
pany the Deceased to its Sepulchre, and make due Offerings 
of Worship and Prayer unto God for the Salvation of the 
departed Soul. 

Question 48. 

What and how many are the Works of Mercy that respect 
the Soul ? 


Seven. The first is to exhort a Sinner, and convert him 
from his Sins, that he may be brought to amend his Life ; 
as witnesseth the Scripture {James v. 19), Brethren, if any of 
you do err from, the Truth, and one convert him, let him know 
that he which converteth a Sinner from the Error of his Way 
shall save a Soul from Death, and shall hide a Midtitude of 

This is the chiefest and most exalted Oifice of Humanity 
that can move a good Man with Compassion for his Neigh- 
bour; for this containeth not temporary and changeable 
Rewards only, but such as are permanent and eternal. But 

118 The Orthodox Confession of the 

in the Discharge of this Duty the utmost Care and Caution 
must be used that the Sinner be not imprudently cast into 
Despair, or led into an ill-grounded or presumptuous Con- 
fidence of God's Mercy. By either of these we should do 
more Harm than Good unto the Person we undertook to 
convert; wherefore we should discreetly preserve a middle 
Course : And where we ourselves are not equal to such an 
Undertaking, it is our Daty to seek out some more fit and 
able Person for the OfHce, and endeavour to engage their 
Assistance. The same is also to be regarded in the Con- 
version of Heretics and Schismatics. 

Question 49. 
What is the second spiritual Work of Mercy ? 


To instruct the Ignorant and Unlearned. And he rightly 

dischargeth this Daty who teacheth the Ignorant how to 

believe in God, three Persons, but only one Godhead. That 

is, supposing a Person to be properly qualified for instructing ; 

which if he be not, let him then seek some other who is so, 

lest, as the Scripture saith, the Blind leading the Blind, they 

should hoth fall into the Ditch. We are, also, hereby directed 

to inform the Unskilful how they should worship God in a 

proper Manner, and in what Method they should pray unto 

him, and also how they should the most easily know the 

Commands of God, and the readiest Means of obeying them. 

And this especially with Regard to Orphans and Children 

destitute of Friends and Parents, whom we should take 

care to have instructed in good and Religious Knowledge : 

whereby afterwards they may happily become useful to the 

Church and the public Weal ; and God be thanked and 

glorified by them. This Duty if we neglect, we shall surely 

be condemned in the same Sentence which was pronounced 

against the unprofitable Servant, who having received the 

Talent, returned it unto his Master without any Profit or 

Improvement {Matth. xxv. 30). 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church 119 

Question 50. 
What is the third spiritual Wort of Mercy ? 


That we should give good Counsel to him that standeth in 
need thereof; as when, by our pious and Christian Exhorta- 
tions and good Advice, we reclaim a wicked and sinful Liver 
from his Evil Courses to a regular and holy Life. Like- 
wise when any, by Misfortunes and other Afflictions, are so 
distressed and entangled that they know not how to help 
themselves and get out of their Troubles ; then should we 
freely, and with a liberal Hand, give unto them this healing 
Balsam of good Counsel, and advise them how they best may 
secure their Lives and Credit. This Duty also requires that 
we should disclose unto our Neighbour any ill Designs that 
we know to be laid against his Life or good Name, whereof 
he is ignorant : But herein we must proceed warily and 
prudently, and take care that we do not stir up Hatred 
between any, nor become the Causes of bloodshed. 

Question 51. 
What is the fourth spiritual Work oi Mercy? 


That we should pray unto God for each other. And 
although this Duty more particularly obligeth the Priests of 
the Church and spiritual Fathers, yet are Laymen also bound 
by it. Concerning which we spake more at large when we 
treated concerning the sixth Precept of the Church. 

Question 52. 
What is the fifth spiritual Work of Mercy 1 


To comfort the Sorrowful. And in order to this, we must 
first take care that no one suffers Affliction or Damage 

120 IJhe Orthodox Confession of the 

through our Means, and that we do not become grievous 
unto any : as saith the Apostle to the Bomans, chap. xii. 
18, If it he possible, as much as lieth in yoio, live peace- 
ably ivith all Men. Dearly Beloved, avenge not yourselves, hut 
give Blace unto Wrath; for it is written, Bevenge is Mine; 
I will repay, saith the Lord. But most especially are we 
bound to the Observance of this Duty when any one either 
labours under any grievous Crime, or is afflicted with any 
dangerous Sickness, or is oppressed with any great and 
uncommon Calamity : In all which Cases we must not fail to 
comfort and relieve our suifering Brethren with our Con- 
solation and good Offices. 

Question 53. 
What is the sixth spiritual Work of Mercy ? 


That we hear with Injuries patiently. And we discharge 
this Duty when we cheerfully and meekly suffer for Christ's 
Sake, remembering that he endured much more grievous 
Things for our Sakes : As it is written (1 Pet. ii. 21), 
Because Christ also suffered for us, leaving us an Example, that 
we should follow his Steps. Wherefore we must not wish Evil 
to those who tyrannically vex and afflict us, nor return 
Evil for Evil : According to the Apostle (1 Pet. iii. 9), Not 
rendering Evil for Evil, but rather giving Thanks unto God 
that we are thought worthy to suffer for his Sake, we should 
pray unto him earnestly that he would forgive our Enemies, 

Question 54. 
What is the seventh spiritual Work of Mercy ? 


That we readily and heartily forgive those that of end us. 
And in order to discharge this Duty effectually we must 
forgive unto our Enemies whatsoever they have done against 
us ; and not only so, but we must, moreover, sincerely 
endeavour to obtain the Peace and Forgiveness of God for 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 121 

those who have injured us, as we have before said. And 
this, our Forgiveness, must not be confined to once, but even 
unto seventy Times seven ; according as our Lord and Saviour 
taught unto Peter, saying (Matth. xviii. 22), F say not unto thee, 
until seven Times, hut until seventy Times seven. 

Question 55. 
What is the sixth Beatitude ? 

Blessed are the pttre in Heart, for they shall see God. 

Question 56. 
What doth this Beatitude teach ? 


In this Beatitude the Virtue of CJmstity is recommended. 
For whosoever desireth to see God, he must be chaste and 
continent, both in Body and Mind, and in all his Thoughts, 
for impure Thoughts defile the Image of God, and drive 
away the divine Presence out of the Soul. 

Question 57. 
What is the seventh Beatitude ? 


Blessed are the Peacemakers, for they shall he called the 
Children of God. 

Question 58. 

What doth this Beatitude teach ? 


In the first Place, those are entitled to the Blessing and 
Keward of this Beatitude who daily off'er up the unbloody 
Sacrifice to God, with Fastings and Prayer, to turn away the 
Wrath of God from Men, which we most justly hnve deserved, 

122 The Orthodox Confession of the 

and reconcile him to his sinful Creatures. Secondly, Those 
obtain the Promise of this Beatitude who, by prudently and 
seasonably interposing, put away Strife and Quarrelling ; 
and uniting Men in mutual Love and Charity, cause them to 
become Friends who before were Enemies. And, lastly, 
those are intended who by their Counsel and Advice heal 
the Differences arising. among Kings and Princes, and stifle 
and extinguish the first Sparks of War, that Bloodshed and 
Slaughter may he jirevented. 

Question 59. 
What is the eighth Beatitude ? 


Blessed are they which are persemted for Bighteousness' Sake ; 
for theirs is the Kingdom of Heaven. 

Question 60. 
What doth this Beatitude teach ? 


They are the Objects of this Beatitude who speak the 
Truth undauntedly, and reprove Men for their Sins and 
Faults, notwithstanding for so doing they suffer Hatred, 
and even Death : As did John the Baptist from Herod (Matth. 
XV. 16), and many others. In which Number are to be 
reckoned all the Doctors of the Church, Preachers of the 
Gospel, and Confessors, who, for the Truth of their Doctrine 
and the Purity of their Rules, have been hated and perse- 
cuted oftentimes even by their own ungrateful Hearers and 

Question 61. 

What is the ninth Beatitiidel 


Blessed are ye when Men shall revile you, and persecute you, 
and shall say all manner of Evil against you, falsely, for my 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 123 

Sake. Rejoice, and Ic eorcedivg glad, for great is your Reward 
in Heaven. 

Question 62. 

What is contained in this Beatitude ? 


The Apostles, Martyrs, iiiul all those who suffer Persecution 
for the orthodox and catholic Faith; who are reviled and 
afflicted, despoiled of their Goods and Possessions, driven 
into Banishment and Disgrace, and, finally, deprived even 
of their Lives, and their Blood cruelly shed, are the Pos- 
sessors of this Beatitude. 

Question 63. 

How are we to think concerning the Works to which Christ 
hath promised the Reward of this Beatitude ? 


First, That these good Works are so connected and joined 
together, that whosoever really and truly hath one of these 
Virtues, he possesses them all ; and so, likewise, that he 
who is entirely destitute of any one is void of all the rest. 

Secondly, You are to understand, concerning these good 
Works that we have recited, that he who doth them will not 
only enjoy eternal Blessedness in Heaven, but also in this 
Life, by the divine Favour, will receive a plentiful Reward 
of temporal good Things : According to the Words of Christ 
(Matth. xix. 29), Fvery one that hath forsaken Houses, or 
Brethren, or Sisters, or Father, or Mother, or Wife, or Children, or 
Lands, for my Name's Sake, shall receive an hundred-fold, and 
shall inherit everlasting Life. And elsewhere {Mark x. 29), 
There is no Man that hath left House, or Brethren, or Sisters, or 
Father, or Mother, or Wife, or Children, or Lands, for my Sake 
and the Gospel's, iut he shall receive an hundred-fold now in 
this Time, Houses, and Brethren, and Sisters, and Mothers, and 
Children, and Lands, with Persecutions; and in the World to 
come eternal Life. 

124 Tlie Onhodox Confession of the 



Question 1. 

What is contained in the third Part of the Orthodox Con- 
fession ? 


The third Part of the Orthodox Confession treats of the Love 
of God and of our Neighbour, and contains the divine Deca- 
logue, or Ten Commandments. 

Our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ ratified and confirmed 
the Authority of the Decalogue in the new Law, and enlarged 
and perfected the Doctrine of it by these Words (Mattk. v. 
19), Whosoever therefore shall break one of these least Command- 
ments, and shall teach Men so, he shall be called the least in the 
Kingdom of Heaven : but whosoever shall do and teach them, the 
same shall be called great in the Kingdom of Heaven. 

Question 2. 

What is necessary for us toward the exact and right per- 
forming these divine Commandments? 


First, It is to be considered that the Commands of God 
are either such as require us to do some good Thing, or such 
as forbid us doing some evil Thing. Whosoever, therefore, 
is desirous to understand these Commandments rightly, ouo-ht 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 125 

in the first Place to learn what is meant by Good, and what 
is understood hj Evil. Good, therefore, is. Properly, Vir- 
tue, as Sin is Evil. Now, as it seems to us to be the most 
useful and agreeable Method, we shall first treat concerning 
Virtues and Vices, and then of the ten Commandments of 
our Lord and God. 

Question 3. 

How are we to think concerning the Christian Virtues, or 
of good Works ? 


Crood Works, or the Christian Virtues, are the Fruits of Faith, 
as of a good Tree — [Matth. vii. 16), By their Fruits ye shall 
know them. And elsewhere (John xiii. 35), By this shall all Men 
know ye are my Disciples, if ye have Love one to another. And 
again (1 John ii. 3), And hereby we do know that we know him, 
if we keep his Commandments. But that it may be more fully 
understood what we mean by Christian Virtue, we say that good 
Works is the fulfilling the Commandments of God, which any one 
doth freely ly the divine Assistance, the human Will and Under- 
standing also concurring, and being moved thereunto by the Love 
of God and of our Neighbour, and when a Man is free from all 
real Impediments. 

Question 4. 

Which of the Christian Virtues are the most necessary ? 


Faith, Hope, and Charity are the most necessary, as 
being those without which we can by no Means obtain Sal- 
vation. To this the Apostle refers when he says (1 Cor. xiii. 
13), And now abideth Faith, Hope, and Charity, these three ; 
hut the greatest of these is Charity. Of the two former of 
these Virtues, namely. Faith and Hope, we have sufficiently 
discoursed already in the two foregoing Parts of this Ortho- 
dox Confession. In this present Part, therefore, we propose, 
with the Guidance of the Divine Spirit, to treat concerning 

126 T)ie Orthodox Confession of the 

Question 5. 

What are those other Virtues that spring forth aud arise 
out of these three g-eneral and fundamental Virtues ? 


These three, Prayer, Fasti'iig, and Ahns, which, arising from 
Faith, are rendered pleasing and acceptable to God, by Jlope, 
through Charity. 

Question 6. 

What is Prayer ? 


Of Prayer we have already treated sufficiently in the 
Second Part of this Orthodox Confession. 

What is Fasting i 

Question 7. 


That Fasting which is considered as a Christian Virtue is 
the abstaining from all Food (at least from some, as in Case 
of Sickness) and Liquors, from all worldly Concerns, and 
from all evil Desires ; that so, being freed from all Hindrances 
and Encumbrances, the devout Christian may apply himself 
with more Eeadiness and Tranquillity to recommend himself 
to God in Prayer, and obtain bis Pardon ; and also subdue 
the Lusts of tlie Flesh, and receive the Grace of God. Of 
this Kind of Fasting the Scripture speaketh thus (2 Cor. 
vi. 4, 5), But in all Things approving ourselves as the Servants 
of God ; in much Patience, in Afflictions, in Necessities, in 
Distress, in Stripes, in Imprisonments, in Tumults, in Labours, 
in Watchings, in Fastings. And again, iu another Place 
(Joel ii. 15), Blow the Trumpet in Zion, sanctify a Fast, call 
a solemn Assembly, gather the People. And a little after, 
Si^are thy People, Lord, and give not thy Heritage to Reproach. 
And this Kind of Fasting being rightly and duly performed, 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 12Y 

hath great Efficacy in obtaining God's Pardon for our Sins, 
as came to pass at Nineveh. But on this head we have been 
very full already,, in treating of the Precepts of the Church. 

Question 8. 
How many Kinds of Fasting are there ? 


There be many Sorts of Fasts, as, first, those that are 
constantly observed at stated Times, as the four yearly 
Fasts, and those which are kept weekly on Wednesdays and 
Fridays; and those accidental and occasional ones which 
are appointed by the Governors of the Church, in particular 
Provinces and Towns on particular Occasions. And these, 
in due Obedience to the Church, mast be carefully observed. 
There be also public and private Fasts; public, as those 
which are solemnised by the whole Church in general ; and 
private, or peculiar, such as are those observed and kept by 
particular Provinces, or Countries, or Cities, or by private 
Persons, by their own Appointment, for some religious 
Advancement, or the Performance of a Vow, or by the In- 
junction and Command of their Ghostly Father. 

Question 9. 
What is Almsgiving ? 


Almsgiving is a work of Mercy, performed hy doing a Benefit 
to the Soul or Body of any one, having Regard only to the 
Necessities, and not to the Person of him who standeth in Need 
of your Alms. Now, this Virtue is especially necessary for 
every Christian ; as the Holy Scripture teaches (Tobit. xii. 9), 
For Alms doth deliver from Death, and shall purge aivay all 
Si7is : Those that exercise Alms and Righteousness shall he filled 
with Life. And in the New Testament we find the Scripture 
thus recommending Almsgiving {Matth. xxi. 21), Go and sell 
that thou hast, and give to the Poor ; and thou shall have Treasure 
in Heaven. And Christ promiseth that he will give a great 

128 The OrtJiodox Confession of the 

Reward in the Day of Judgment (Matth. xxv. 40), Verily I 
say unto you, Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least 
of these my Brethren, ye have done it unto me; (ver. 84), Come, ye 
blessed of my Father, inherit the Kingdom prepared for you from 
the Foundation of the World. Moreover, Almsgiving, joined 
with Fasting, renders our Prayers acceptable with God, and 
inclines his Ears to hear us : As the Angel said unto 
Cornelius (Acts x. 4), Thy Prayer and thine Alms are come up 
for a Memorial lefore God. This Virtue comprehends within 
itself all other Virtues, as we have already shown in the 
Second Part of this our Confession. 

Question 10. 
What other Virtues, besides, arise out of these ? 


These four general Virtues, Prudence, Justice, Fortitude, and 

Question 11. 

Wlierein doth Christian Prudence consist ? 


Christian Prudence is an earnest and upright Will, arising 
from Forethought and a diligent Circumspection, that none 
of our Actions or Thoughts offend God or our Neighbour. 
Of this kind of Prudence the Lord thus teacheth us {Matth. 
X. 1 6), Be ye wise as Serpents, and harmless as Doves. Which St. 
Paul thus more fully expoundetU {Eph. v. 15), See then that 
ye walk circumspectly, not as Fools, hut as wise, redeeming the 
Time, because the Days core Evil. Wherefore le ye not unwise, 
hut understanding what the Will of the Lord is. This Christian 
Prudenxie is founded in Plainness and perfect Simplicity of 
Heart, in all Honesty and Uprightness, and in all Wari- 
ness, that the Enemy of our Souls do not beguile us with 
Indiscretion ; nor any others who may desire to give us 
Hindrance and Disturbance. 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 129 

Question 12. 

What is Justice ? 


Justice is that Virtue which renders to every one that which 
belongeth unto him and is his Due; which ohservetU to do 
that which is his Duty, without respect to Persons ; and this 
not only in one's Business and Dealings, but also in what 
relates to another's Distinction and Dignity. Christian Jus- 
tice not only returns Good for Evil, but also permitteth not 
to wish Evil to another, although deserved from us : Accord- 
ing to the Apostle's doctrine (Eom. xii. 17), Recompense to 
no Man Evil for Evil. Provide things honest in the Sight of 
all Men. And the Apostle, speaking directly of Justice itself, 
saith thus {Rom. xiii. 7), Render therefore to all their Dues, 
Tribute to whom Tribute is due, Custom to whom Custom, Fear 
to whom Fear, Honour to whom Honour. Owe no Man any- 
thing, but to love one another ; for he that loveth another hath 
fulfilled the Law. 

Question 13. 

Do, then. Magistrates and Judges sin against Justice when 
they punish the Guilty for their Crimes ? 


No ; for there is no Power but of God ; as St. Paul 
teacheth {Rom. xiii. 3), Rulers are not a Terror to good 
Works, but unto the Evil : Wilt thou then not be afraid of the 
Power ? Do that which is Good, and thou shall have Praise 
of the same. For he is the Minister of God to thee for good. 
But if thou do that which is Evil, be afraid; for he beareth not 
the Sword in vain ; for he is the Minister of God to execute 
Wrath upon him that doeth Evil. 

Question 14. 

What is Temperance ? 


Temperance is the Moderation in Eating, Drinking, and 
Clothing which any one observeth ; likewise it is that whereby 


130 Tlie Orthodox Confession of the 

one prudently chooseth that which is fit and becoming him 
in all his Words and Actions ; as the Apostle says to the 
Romans {Bom. xiii. 13), Let us walk honestly as in the Day ; 
not in Bioting and Drunkenness, not in Chambering and Wan- 
tonness, not in Strife and Envying. In like Manner (1 Cor. 
xiv. 40), Let all things be done Decently and in Order. 

Question 15. 

What is Fortitude ? 


Fortitude, that is, considered as a Christian Virtue, is a 
firm Strength of Mind, whereby any one withstands all the 
Storms of Temptation, which, for Christ's sake, he endure tli 
from visible and invisible Enemies ; which Constancy of Mind 
St. Paul describeth (Bom. viii. 35), Who shall separate us from 
the Love of Christ ? Shall Tribulation, or Distress, or Perse- 
cution, or Famine, or Nakedness, or Peril, or Sword? And 
a little after, at the 38th Verse, For I am persuaded that 
neither Death, nor Life, nor Angels, nor Principalities, nor 
Powers, nor Things present, nor Things to come : Nor Height, 
nor Depth, nor any other Creature, shall be able to separate 
us from the Love of God, which is in Christ Jesus our Lord. 
But of this Class of Virtues we have already discoursed in 
the former Part, when we treated of the Gifts of the Holy 
Spirit and other Virtues. 

Question 16. 

What is Sin ? 


Sin hath not any Existence in itself, as it is not a Being 
created by God : wherefore we cannot explain what it is ; 
only thus far we can describe it, That it is a certain unre- 
strained and unruly Will of Man, out of the Devil ; or it may 
be described as in Holy Scripture (1 John iii. 4), Sin is a 
Transgression of the Law : That is. Sin is a Transgression of 
the Divine Law; which Transgression is some Contrariety, oppos- 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 131 

ing the Will of God, proceeding from the Understanding and the 
proper and deliberate Will of the Sinner. From this Contra- 
riety ariseth Death, and all the divine Wrath ; as saith the 
Scripture {Jarnes i. 15), Then when Zust hath conceived, it 
hringeth forth Sin ; and Sin, when it is finished, hringeth forth 

Question 17, 

How many Kinds of Sin be there ? 


According to the Scripture, some Sins be unto Death, and 
some not unto Death. There be, therefore, mortal Sins, and 
those that are not so. 

Question 18. 

What is mortal Sin ? 


Mortal Sin is, when the perverse Will of Man doeth a 
thing manifestly forbidden by the divine Law ; or, on the 
other hand, omitted to do, with the whole Heart and Desire, 
that which is commanded of Grod, whereby Charity towards 
God and our Neighbour is broken. 

This Will of Man excludeth from the Grace of God, and 
killeth him who fulfiUeth it in his Works. For whicli 
Reason their Degree of Sin is said to be mortal ; according 
to the Apostle {Rom. vi. 23), Th^ Wages of Sin is Death. A 
base consenting, whereby any one determines or purposes to 
commit a Sin, giveth indeed a grievous Wound unto the 
Soul, but doth not entirely kill it. 

Question 19. 
Into how many Parts is mortal Sin divided ? 

One Kind of mortal Sin is original, the other voluntary. 

132 The Orthodox Confession of the 

Question 20. 
What is Original Sin ? 


Originul Sin is the Transgression of that Law of God which 
was given to Adam, the Father of all Men, in these "Words 
{Gen. ii. 17), Of the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil 
thou shall not eat ; for in the Day that thou eatest thereof 
thou shall surely die. This original Sin spreadeth over all 
human Nature ; forasmuch as we were all then contained in 
Adam. Wherefore by one Adam Sin hath passed into us 
all. And we are conceived and born with this Blemish, 
as the Scripture teacheth us {Bom. v. 12), By one Man Sin 
entered into the World, and Death hy Sin ; and so Death passed 
upon all Men, for that all have sinned. This hereditary Sin 
cannot be rooted out or abolished by any Repentance what- 
ever, but only by the Grace of God, through the Work of 
Redemption, wrought by our Lord Jesus Christ, in taking 
upon him our Flesh and pouring out his precious Blood. 
And this is done in the Mystery of holy Baptism; and 
whosoever is not a Partaker thereof, such an one remains 
unabsolved from his Sin, and continueth in his Guilt, and 
is liable to the eternal Punishment of the divine Wrath : 
As it is said {John iii. 5), Verily, verily, I say unto you, that 
except a Man be horn of Water, and of the Spirit, he cannot 
enter into the Kingdom of Heaven. 

Question 21. 
What is voluntary mortal Sin ? 


Voluntary mortal Sin is that which, after having received 
Baptism, and being arrived in Years of Discretion, laying 
aside the Love of God and of our Neighbour, and of our 
own free Will we commit against the manifest Command of 
God. By which Sin we are deprived of the divine Grace 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 133 

that we received in holy Baptism, and of the Kingdom of 
Heaven, and become Captives to eternal Death : As saith 
the Apostle {Bom. vi. 16), Know ye not, that to whom ye yield 
yourselves Servants to obey., his Servants ye are to whom ye obey ; 
whether of Sin unto Death, or of Obedience unto Righteousness ? 
This Sin is taken away by Eepentance and the Mercy of 
Grod, through Jesiis Christ our Lord, when his Priest absolveth 
the Penitent at Confession from his Sins. 

Question 22. 
How may this voluntary mortal Sin be divided ? 


Into three Kinds. Of the First, whereof we reckon general 
mortal Sins, or those from whence others do arise ; of the 
Second are those which are committed against the Holy 
GrHOST; and the thi7'd Sort are they which do the most 
frequently draw down the divine Vengeance on this World. 

Question 23. 
What are those you call general mortal Sins ? 


These : Pride, Avarice, Whoredom, Envy, Gluttony, Desire of 
Bevenge or bearing Malice, and Sloth. 

Question 24. 

What is Pride ? 


Pride is an inordinate and lonjust Ambition of its own Glory 
and Exaltation, by Bight or Wrong, over others. This Sin, first 
of all, sprang from Lucifer; and from this, as from an 
infected Fountain, flow all the Streams of Wickedness. The 
Scripture saith of it {Prov. viii. 13), The Fear of the Lord is 
to hate Evil : Pride and Arrogancy, and the evil Way, and the 

134 The Orthodox Confession of the 

froward Motith, do I hate. And another Scripture saith {Sirach 
X. 7), Pride is hateful before God and Man. Opposite unto this 
Vice is the Virue of Humility, which our liorA.- Jesus Christ, 
commending and exhorting us to embrace, speaketh of thus 
(Matth. xi. 29), Zearn of me, for I am meek and lowly in Heart, 
and ye shall find Best unto your Souls. 

Question 25. 
What further Sins arise from this ? 


Namely, these ; to wit, Man's thinking Evil of his Neigh- 
hour ; Bashly Condemning of others, whether Clergy or 
Laymen; Disdbedienee to the Chureh and our Spiritual Rulers; 
also Boasting, Hypocrisy, Fondness for Contention, Frowardness, 
Strife, Unseasonable Curiosity, Arrogancy, Neglecting of God's 
Commandments, Familiar and habitual Practice of Sin, and 
the like. Wherefore, whosoever desireth to be free from this 
Sin, let him always bear in Mind the Words which God 
spake unto Adam {Gen. iii. 19), Dust thou art, and unto Dust 
thou shall return. Let him, likewise, be ever mindful of the 
Last Judgment, and of everlasting Torments ; and also of 
these Words of the Apostle {James iv. 6 and 1 Pet. v. 5), 
God resisteth the Proud, but giveth Grace unto the Humble. 

Question 26. 

What is Avarice ? 


Avarice is the unbounded Coveting of Biches and Possessions. 
Of this Sin the Scripture speaketh thus {Prov. xxviii. 16), 
He that hateth Covetousness shall prolong his Days. And the 
Apostle (2 Pet. ii. 14), An Heart they have exercised with 
covetous Practices ; accursed Children. The Virtue opposite to 
this Vice is Liberality ; as the Psalmist saith {Psal. cxii. 9), 
He hath dispersed abroad and given to the Poor ; his Bighteous- 
ness remaineth for ever. 

CatJwUc and Apostolic Eastern Church. 135 


Wliat Sins arise from Avarice ? 


From Avarice do arise Rapine, Slaughter, Fraud, Lying, 
Rebellion, Oppression and Crioelty, Unmercifiolness, Inhumanity, 
Hard-heartedness, Envy, Treachery, Injuries done to the Poor 
and others, Niggardliness, Theft, and the like of these. Who- 
ever, therefore, desireth to avoid this Vice, let him constantly 
reflect upon the volnntary Poverty of Christ our Lord, who 
saith of himself {Matth. viii. 20), The Foxes have Holes, and 
the Birds of the Air have Nests, hut the Son of Man hath not 
where to lay his Head. Let him also he mindful that he is 
the Steward only, and not the Lord of that which he pos- 
sesseth ; and that God will require an Account of his 
Stewardship when he cometh to Judgment. 

Question 28. 
What is moredom or Intemperance ? 


Whoredom is a foul and detestable Lust of the Flesh, repug- 
nant to the Law of God, luhich a Man committeth against his own 
Body : As saith the Apostle (1 Cor. vi. 18), Ecery Sin that a 
Man doth is without the Body ; biot he that committeth Forni- 
cation sinneth against his own Body. Furthermore, whereas 
every Christian is a Member of Christ's Body; whosoever, 
therefore, lasciviously walloweth with an Harlot defileth him- 
self. Now, that every one of the Faithful is a Member of 
Christ's Body the Apostle affirmeth (1 Cor. vi. 15), Enow ye 
not that your Bodies are the Members of Christ ? Shall I then 
take the Members of Christ and make them the Member's of an 
Harlot? God forbid. And a little after (ver. 18), Flee For- 
nication. The opposite Virtue to this Vice is Temperance. 

136 Tke Orthodox Confession of the 

Question 29. 
What other Sins arise from this ? 


Blindness of Heart, Hatred of divine Things, Impiety, Envy, 
Despair, Profuse Luxury, Laziness, Enmity to his Neighbour, and 
such like. Whosoever would, therefore, flee from this Sin, 
it hehoveth him to set continually before his Mind that the 
holy God dwelleth not save in the chaste and pure Heart : 
For which Keason the sacred Prophet beseecheth God that 
he would bestow on him a clean Heart (Psal. li. 12), Make me 
a clean Heart, God, and renew a right Spirit within me. 

Question 30. 

What is Envy ? 


Envy is a Grief and Discontent of Mind conceived at the Good 
arising to another, and a Joy and Satisfaction when Evil he- 
falleth him. Or, perhaps, it ariseth from our Neighbour's 
being something richer than ourselves, or for that he is as 
much esteemed and as wealthy. The same suppose of Honour, 
Glory, Learning, and other Qualifications. Of this Yice the 
Scripture saith thus (1 Fet. ii. 1), Wherefore, laying aside all 
Malice, and all Guile, and Hypocrisies, and Envies, and all evil 
Speaking, as new-born Babes, desire the sincere Milk of the Word, 
that yemay grow thereby. 

Question 31. 
What Sins do spring out from this Envy ? 


Hatred, Backbiting, Contempt, Fraud, Circumventing, Blood- 
shed, and such like. Now, whosoever would strive to avoid 
this Sin, let him always consider that whatsoever Good hap- 
peneth unto any Man cometh altogether from the divine 
Favour; as it is said (1 Cor. iv. 7), What hast thou that thou 
didst not receive ? Now if thou didst receive it, why dost thou 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 137 

glory, as if thou hadst not received it ? "Whosoever, therefore, 
euvieth another the good Things that he hath received from 
Grod, reproacheth God himself, and becometh altogether such 
as he to whom it was said {Matth. xx. 15), Is it not laivful for 
me to do what I will with mine own ? Is thine Eye evil, because 
mine is good? The Opposite of this Vice is the Virtue of 
Benevolence and a Disposition of Mind to Goodwill. 

Question 32. 
What is Gluttony 1 


Gluttony, or Bavening, is the devouring an immoderate Quan- 
tity of Meat and Drink, more than usual and necessary. Of this 
Vice the Scripture thus speaketh {Ltike xxi. 34), Take heed 
to yourselves, lest at any Time your Hearts he overcharged with 
Surfeiting and Drunkenness, and the Cares of this Life, and so 
that Day come upon yoio unawares. And again (Bom. xiii. 13), 
Let us walk honestly, as in the Day ; not in Bioting and Drunken- 
ness, not in Chambering and Wantonness, not in Strife and 

Question 38. 

What Sins proceed from Gluttony ? 


Stupidity and Sloth, Laziness in the Exercises of Beligion, Lasci- 
vious Inclinations, Vain Jests and Unseemly Mirth, Insolent Self- 
love and Contempt of Others, Foul Language, Brawling, Bude- 
ness, Great Diseases, Profuse Liixury, and the like. To this 
Vice are opposite Sobriety and cheerful Frugality ; as it is said 
(1 Cor. xiii. 40), Let all Things be done decently and in order. 

Question 34. 
What is Remembrance of Injuries, or the Desire of Revenge ? 

The Desire ofBevenge is an inflamed Inclination wherewith an 
angry Man burns, of taking Vengeance on any Person who hath 
injured or offended him, or whom he thinks to have done so. Of 

138 The Orthodox Confession of the 

this Sin the Scripture speaketh thus {James i. 19), Let every Man 
he svjift to hear, slow to speah, slow to Wrath ; for the Wrath of 
Man worlceth not the Righteousness of God. And elsewhere {Eph. 
iv. 31), Let all Bitterness, and Wrath, and Anger, and Clamour, 
and Evil-speaking he p%d away from you, with all Malice. 

Question 35. 
What Bins are caused by this inveterate Anger or Remem- 
hrance of Injuries ? 


From this Desire of Revenge arises an Inclination to Strife, 
Grudging at another's Good, Bloodshed, Raving, Mischief, and 
doing of Injuries, and the like. The Virtue of Patience is 
opposed to this Vice, as the Apostle declareth in these Words 
{Reb. X. 36), Ye have need of Patience, that, after ye have done 
the Will of God, ye might receive the Promise. 

Question 36. 
What is Sloth and Listlessness ? 


Sloth is a Coldness and Negligence in ohtaining the eternal Sal- 
vation of our Souls, causing one to do good Actions with Unwill- 
ingness and Aversion, and to avoid taking Pains to do anything 
that is good. Against this Vice the Apostle writes {Heh. vi. 12), 
Be not slothfid, hut Followers of them ivho through Faith and 
Patience inherit the Promises. Our Saviour, also, speaking of 
such idle and slothfid Servants, saith (Matth. xxv. 26), Thou 
wicked and slothful Servant, thou knewest that I reap where I 
solved not, and gather where I have not strawed. And again (ver. 
30), Cast ye the unprofitable Servant into outer Darkness; there 
shcdl he lueeping and gnashing of Teeth. 

Question 37. 
What Sins arise from Sloth ? 

Voluntary Dissoluteness, Pretences for Sinning, Scandal, a 
Voluptuous Life, Haughtiness, and such like. The Virtue oppo- 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 139 

site to this Vice is Diligence and Wakeful Industry. To which 
Christ thus exhorteth us (Matth. xxv. 13), Watch, therefore; 
for ye know neither the Day nor the Hour wherein the Son 
of Man Cometh. And the Apostle saith (1 Pet. v. 8), Be sober, 
be vigilant; because your Adversary the Devil, as a roaring 
Lion, walketh about, seeking whom he may devour : Whom resist 
stedfast in the Faith. 

Question 38. 

What are the Sins tliat are committed against the Holy 
Ghost ? 


An over-great and ill-grounded Confidence in the Grace 
of God; i.e., Presumption, and likewise Despair, which is 
when any one entirely distrusts the divine Mercy; for tliis 
is to contradict the manifest and established Truth, and a 
Denial of the orthodox Faith of Christians. 

Question 39. 
What is over-great Confidence in the Grace of God ? 


This over-great Confidence is a rash Dependence which any 
one takes upon the Mercy of God, and thereon presumes to hope 
that God will not withhold his Grace from him, nor punish him, 
notwithstanding he continues still in his Sins ; and so thereby 
makes the Justice of God of none Account. Let those who 
have this most daugerous and grievous Error to conflict and 
struggle with hear the Apostle teaching them, thus (Pom. 
ii. 4), Or despisest thou the Riches of his Goodness, and For- 
bearance, and Long-suffering ; not knowing that the Goodness of 
God leadeth thee to Repentance: But, after thy Hardness and 
impenitent Heart, treasurest up unto thyself Wrath against the 
Day of Wrath and Revelation of the righteous Judgment of God ? 

Of this Sort are those who, with unbridled Tongues, are 
uot ashamed to declare openly thus: " If God pleases, I shall 
be saved; and if he doth not please, I shall not." And thus, 
castino- off all Care of amending their Lives, they rest in 

140 The Orthodox Confession of the 

a destructive Security, and neglect the Salvation of their 
Souls. The Holy Scripture calls on these Men to be more 
provident, in these Words (Matth. xviii. 14), It is not the Will 
of your Father which is in Heaven that one of these little ones 
should perish. And the Lord hath pronounced by his Prophets 
{Ezek. xxxiii. 11), ^s I live, saith the Lord God, I would not 
the Death of a Sinner, hut that the Wicked tur7i from his 
Way and live. Also the Apostle in another Place saith 
(1 Tim. ii. 4), For this is good and acceptable in the Sight of 
God our Saviour, who will have all Men to he saved, and to come 
unto the Knowledge of the Truth. Those likewise partake of 
this Error who expect to obtain eternal Life by Faith only 
without good Works. 

Question 40. 
What is Despair of the divine Mercy ? 


Despair is a Distrust of the Mercy of God, which ariseth 
in a Sinner from a mistaken Opinion that God will not 
pardon him, and receive him again into Favour, because of 
the evil Deeds which he hath done, or the good Works which he 
hath left imdone. He supposeth human Malice and Iniquity 
almost to exceed the divine Mercy and Goodness, as Cain 
said {Gen. iv. 13), Mine Iniquity is greater than that it may be 
remitted unto me; which horrid Blasphemy is the highest 
and most reproachful Affront to the Mercy and Goodness of 
God. Wherefore let not any one, howsoever great or heavy 
be his Sins, in the least think distrustfully or despairingly 
of the boundless Mercy of God toward Mankind. Let him, 
instead thereof, bethink himself of the Example of the 
prodigal Son, whom his heavenly Father received with a 
most gracious Countenance and Bosom full of Affection 
when he repented and turned again unto him ; thereby 
most clearly teaching us that we should not only forgive 
our repenting Brother seven times that whatsoever he hath 
sinned against us in, but even until seventy times seven 
{Matth. xviii. 22). The same he hath said by the Mouth of 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 141 

his Prophet {Joel ii. 12, 13), T^(.rn ye even 'unto me with all 
your Heart, and with Fasting, and with Weeping, and with 
Mourning ; and rend your Hearts, and not your Garments, and 
turn unto the Lord your God ; for he is gracious and merci- 
ful, slow to Anger, and of great Kindness, and repenteth him 
of the Evil. 

Question 41. 

What is wilful Gainsaying or Perverseness which any one 
committeth against a manifest Truth ? 


A Person is guilty of this Perverseness, or Contradiction 
against certain and manifest Truth, when, notwithstanding 
he well and fully knows what is good, yet obstinately opposes 
it both in his Words and Actions, though contrary to his 
Conscience, that he may go on in Sin with the less Restraint. 
Of such Sinners the Scripture speaketh thus (Pom. i. 18), 
The Wrath of God is revealed from Heaven against all Un- 
godliness and Unrighteousness of Men, who hold the Truth in 
Unrighteousness. They wander in a like Error who slander 
the good Works of their Neighbour, denying that they be 
of God ; as the Pharisees and Jews formerly abused our 
Saviour when they beheld him cast out impure Spirits with 
his Word and do many Miracles. Like unto these are they 
who envy others the Grace bestowed on them by God, and 
likewise those who forbear to teach the Articles of the 
Christian Faith unto those who are ignorant of it merely 
out of Malice and Evil-mindedness. Which Deeadful Evil 
DO Thou, Christ, our King, Entirely Root out of 
every Catholic and Orthodox Christian's Heart ! A 
like Estimation is to be had of these who attribute true 
Piety and other good Deeds, which are the Fruits of the 
Holy Ghost, unto Hypocrisy. They also are led astray by 
the same Error who put off the Faith of Christ; as it is 
said (Matth. x. 32), Whosoever shall confess me lefore Men, him 
will I confess also before my Father ivhich is in Heaven ; but 
whosoever shall deny me before Man, him urill I also deny before 
my Father which is in Heaven. 

142 The Orthodox Confession of the 

Question 42. 

"What are those Sins which do most usually and frequently 
bring down the divine Vengeance on this World F 


These following ; namely, Wilful and designed Murder ; of 
which the Scripture speaketh {Gen. iv. 10), The Voice of thy 
Brothers Blood erieth unto me from the Ground. Also the Sin 
of Sodomy ; as the Lord saith (^Gen, xviii. 20), Because the 
Cry of Sodom and Gomorrha is great, and because their Sin 
is very grievoits ; therefore I luill go down now, and see whether 
tliey have done altogether according to the Cry of it which is come 
unto me; and if not, I vMl know. Likewise Oppression of 
the Orphan and the Widow, and the defrauding the Labourer 
of his Hire. Concerning which thus the Prophet Malachi 
speaketh {chap. iii. 5), I will come near you to Judgment, and 
I will be a swift Witness against the Sorcerers, and against the 
Adulterers, and against the False-swearers, and against those 
that oppress the Hireling in his Wages, the Widow and the 
Fatherless, and that turn aside the Stranger from his Right, and 
fear not me, saith the Lord of Hosts. To this may be added 
those who neglect their Duty to their Parents, and become 
ungrateful unto them : As saith the Scripture {Exod. xxi. 15), 
He that smiteth his Father or his Mother shall surely be piot 
to Death. And (ver. 17), He that curseth his Father or Mother 
shall surely be put to Death. 

Question 43. 
What is venial Sin or Sin not mortal ? 


Sin not mortal, or, as it is called by some, venial Sin, is 
that which no Man that is born, except Christ and the Virgin 
Mary, can be without. However, this Degree of Sin doth 
not deprive ns of the Grace of God, nor devote us unto 
eternal Death. Of this Kind of Sin the Scripture thus 
teacheth us (John i. 8), If we say that we have no Sin we 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 143 

deceive ourselves, and the Tnoth is not in us. Not any particular 
Sin, indeed, can be described by this Name, but, in general, 
whatever are not reckoned in the Number of mortal Sins 
may be referred to this Class of venial Sins. Nevertheless 
these Sins are not to be disregarded and suifered to pass 
unamended ; but we ought daily, in our Beds, and in the 
Night Season, to call them to Mind, and bewail and lament 
before God for them, as well as for our other Offences : 
According to the holy Psalmist (Psal. iv. 5), Sta^id in 
Awe, and sin not ; commune %oith your own Heart in your 
Chamber, and he still. And again (Psal. vi. 6), / am weary 
of ray groaning ; every Night luash I my Bed and water my 
Couch with my Tears. For these, therefore, is Pardon also 
to be sought, through the Intercession of the holy God- 
bearing Virgin and the Choir of the Saints ; for how hateful 
even these smaller Offences are in the Sight of God is 
manifest from Scripture (Prov. xv. 26), Wicked Thoughts are 
an Abomination to the Lord. And without they be cleansed 
away by sincere Eepentance, they open the Way to mortal 
Sins, chill and weaken the Piety of Man, and render him 
slothful and negligent of the Commands of God. 

Question 44. 

May not a Person by some Means become a Partaker of 
another'' s Chiilt ? 


We become Partakers of another^s Guilt when roe entice 
any one to Sin, especially if the Person be one that wholly 
depends upon our Advice and Assistance, and puts all his 
Confidence and Trust in us. Such are those spiritual 
Fathers who permit a Man to lead a wicked Life contrary 
to the divine Commands and the Traditions of the Church. 
Such, also, are those Masters who cause their Servants to 
sin. Husbands their Wives, Parents their Children, or 
Teachers their Scholars, by immediate Persuasion, or per- 
mitting them the Liberty of Living, and so, too, of sinning 
as they think fit. All these, and all like unto these, shall 
render a strict Account unto God in the Day of Judgment of 

144 The Orthodox Confession of the 

those who are committed unto their Care ; wherefore St. Paul 
thus admonisheth his own Timothy (1 Tim. v. 22), Lay Hands 
suddenly on no Man, neither be Partaker of other Men's Sins ; 
keep thyself pure. 

Question 45. 

By what other Means may we become Partakers of the 
Sins of others ? 


When any one giveth Occasion unto others of sinning, 
whether it he inviting them to sin by Scandal, by consent- 
ing, by indecent Language, by commending of Vice or 
decrying of Virtue. Among these are deservedly reckoned 
those who designedly excite others to Anger, those who 
do not strive against Vice and Wickedness with all their 
Might, and those who do not, according to their Station, 
repreliend and admonish. All these become involved in the 
other's Guilt. 

Question 46. 

Having now sufficiently discoursed concerning Virtues 
and Vices, I desire thou wouldst treat concerning the 
Commandments of God? 


The Commandments of God are ten in Number, and in 
them are many others contained. 

Question 47. 

But are not the Precepts of the old Law long since ful- 
filled ? 


The Precepts of the Old Testament which were concerning 
Ceremonies and Mysteries, and were to foreshow the Works 
of Christ, these all are passed away as a Shadow at the 
Approach of the Body; nor are they any longer binding or 
to be observed by Christians. But those Commands which 
enjoin the Observation of Charity and our Duty towards God 
and our Neighbour are not only to be observed by Christians, 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 145 

but to be observed also more carefully and perfectly by them 
than they were by the Israelites under the old Law. For 
as God hath bestowed on us greater and more excellent 
Gifts than on them, and especially as we have received that 
most incomparable Grace of the Holy Spirit, through our 
Lord Jesus Christ, so ought our Actions to excel those of the 
Jews : As it is said {Matt/i. v. 20), Unless your Righteous- 
ness shall exceed the Righteousness of the Scribes aMo? Pharisees, 
ye shall in no Case enter into the Kingdom of Heaven. Like- 
wise {verse 21), Ye have heard that it mas said hy them of 
old Time, Thou shalt not kill ; and whosoever shall kill shall 
be in danger of the Judgment; But I say unto you, that 
whosoever is angry with his Brother without a Cause shall 
be in danger of the Judgment; and whosoever shall say to 
his Brother, Eaka ! shall be in danger of the Council ; but 
whosoever shall say, Thou Fool ! shall be in danger of Hell Fire. 
In the same Place much more is also said of the rest ; 
wherefore all the Commandments relating to the Love of God 
and of our Neighbour are carefully to be observed, for on 
these two hang all the Law and the Prophets : As the Lord 
hath said {Matth. xxii. 37), Thou shalt love the Lord thy God 
with all thy Heart, and with all thy Soul, and with all thy 
Mind. This is the first and great Commandment ; the second is 
like unto it : Thou shalt love thy Neighbour as thyself. On 
these two Commandments hang all the Law and the Prophets. 

Question 48. 

Since Christ confirmed only two Commandments, I pray 
thee how can there be ten? 


These are the two general and principal Commandments, on 
which all the rest are founded, and for this Reason : these 
ten Commandments are divided into two Tables, in the first 
of which those are contained which enjoin the love of God, in 
the last those which teach us in what Manner we are to love 
our Neighbour. Therefore in these two Christ hath con- 
firmed and established the whole ten ; and concerning this 


146 The Orthodox Confession of the 

Law he hath pronounced thus {Lwke xvi. 17), It is easier for 
Heaven and Earth to pass than one Tittle of the Lam to fail. 

Question 49. 
What is the first Commandment of the first TaUe ? 


This is the first Commandment of the first Table, or Codicil 
(Exod. XX. 2), / am the Lord thy God, who broicght thee out of 
the Land of Egypt, and out of the House of Bondage: Thou 
shall have none other God hut me. 

Question 50. 
How is this Commandment to be understood? 


In this first Commandment God reveals himself unto Man 
that he may be known by him, for unto this End gave he 
an understanding Heart unto Man, that he might discern 
and acknowledge him for his Lord and his Creator, and 
praise and glorify him. Accordingly he doth not introduce 
his Laws by saying, I am God, the Creator of the World ; 
but, I am thy God, who brought thee out of the Land of Egypt ; 
it being more familiar and affecting to the Jews that he 
should introduce his Commandments with a Eeason for their 
obeying them that was taken from a signal and memorable 
Transaction wherein they were most affectingly interested, 
and which, as yet, continued before their Eyes, and whereby 
they would the more manifestly and apparently see the great 
Bounty and Goodness of God towards Men, and thereby be 
excited to praise him with the greater Readiness, and acknow- 
ledge him to be the one only true God. He hath elsewhere 
testified concerning himself {Isa. xlv. 12), I have made the 
Earth, and created Man upon it ; I, even my Hands, have stretched 
out the Heaven, and all their Hosts have I commanded. Also a 
little before (ver. 5), / am the Lord, and there is none else ; there 
is no God besides me. Now, we Christians are bound to a more 
exact Observance of this Precept than the Jews were ; forasmuch 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 147 

as our Lord God hath bestowed ou ua a more ample and excel- 
lent Liberty : According to the Apostle (Coloss. i. 13), Who hath 
delivered -us from the Power of Barhness, and hath translated us 
into the Kingdom of his dear Son, in ivhoni we have Bedemption 
through his Blood, even the Forgiveness of Sins. In the second 
Part of this Command the Israelites are forbidden to adore 
and worship any other God but only the true God. By this 
Precept, then, the inward Worship of God, and that which 
proceedeth out of the Heart itself, is commanded; and that 
because God seeth the Heart and searcheth out the most 
hidden Thing's of Men's Minds. 



Who be they that disobey this Commandment, and wherein 
do they transgress it? 


First, All those do mortally sin against this Command- 
ment who do utterly deny and disown the Being of a God : 
As the Psalmist saith {Psal. liii. 1), The fool hath said 
in his Heart, There is no God. Secondly, Those who make 
unto themselves many Gods, unto whom they render Wor- 
ship and Adoration as unto the true God, as did the Heathen. 
Thirdly, Those who sell themselves to the Devil, as Conjurers, 
and those who practise magical Arts and use Charms and 
Spells. Fourthly, Those who give themselves up to Supersti- 
tions and put their Trust in them ; and those who, when they 
have any Sickness, have Eecourse to Enchantments and Incan- 
tations, and follow after such like Superstition. Fifthly, They 
who betake themselves to seek for Omens and Divinations iu 
everything. Sixthly, Those who do not with a right Faith 
believe that God, though in his N^iture he be only One, is 
yet in Person Three. Seventhly, They who put more Trust 
and depend more in their own Prudence and Circumspection 
than in the Grace and Providence of God, or in their own 
Wisdom and Cunning, or in their Strength and Bravery, 
or in the Numbers, Wealth, and Mightiness of their Friends. 
Eighthly, They who love themselves and their worldly Pos- 

148 The Orthodox Confession of the 

sessions more than God. In a Word, all they sin against 
this Commandment who set up anything of any Kind what- 
soever, or in any Manner whatsoever, for a God, and put 
their Trust therein besides the true God only. 

Question 52. 

What, then, are we to think of the Invocation of Saints? 
For this seems to be the most suitable Place to treat con- 
cerning that Matter ? 


We pray unto the Saints for their Intercession with God, 
that they may sustain our Cause with him by their Prayers ; 
but we do by no Means call upon them as Gods, but as the 
Beloved of God, whom they serve, and whom they worship 
and glorify with united Hymns. And surely their Assistance 
is very necessary for us ; not, indeed, that of their own 
Power they can help us, but because by their Prayers in our 
Behalf they may obtain the Grace and Favour of God for us. 
For, in like Manner, we are taught by the holy Scriptures 
that we should entreat the Saints, even whilst they remain in 
this Life, to make Prayers and Intercessions for us unto 
God : As St. Paul himself did [Rom. xv. 30), I beseech you. 
Brethren, for the Lord Jesus Christ's Sake, and for the Love 
of the Spirit, that you strive together with me in your Prayers 
to God for me. And elsewhere (2 Cor. i. 10), In whom we 
trust that he will yet deliver us, you also helping together by 
Prayer for us, that for the Gift bestowed upon us by the 
Means of many Persons Thanks may be given by many on our 
Behalf. In like manner he also prayed himself unto God for 
others, as he testifieth {Philip, i. 4), Always in every Prayer 
of mine for you all making Bequest with Joy. Now, from 
these Testimonies of his we learn these two Things. First, 
That the Saints, whilst they continue in this Life, entreat of 
others to make Prayers and Supplications to God for them. 
Secondly, That they themselves, on their Parts, do pray and 
intercede for others, not only privately and for Particulars, 
but openly and for all : As the Scripture witnesseth {Acts 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 149 

xii. 5), Peter therefore mas kept in Prison, but Prayer mas 
made without ceasing of the Church unto God for him. Now, 
the Saiots after their departure can much more recommend 
us to Grod, forasmuch as they have Nothing to hinder them 
in the Exercise of this Duty. Furthermore, if the Saints 
do procure the Punishment of the Wicked, as the Scripture 
beareth Witness {Rev. vi. 9), I saw under the Altar the Souls of 
them that mere slain for the Word of God, and for the Testimony 
which they held ; and they cried with a loud Voice, saying, 
How long, Lord, holy and true, dost thou not judge and 
avenge our Blood on them that dwell on the Earth ? how 
much more shall they intercede with G-od for their Brethren, 
who are conflicting in the Christian Warfare ; especially for 
those who stand in need of their Help and Intercession : 
As the Scripture teacheth (Rev. xi. 16), And the four and 
twenty Elders who sat before God on their Seats fell upon 
their Faces and worshipped God, saying. We give thee Thajiks, 
Lord God Almighty. And again (ver. 18), And the Time is 
come that thou shouldest give Reward unto thy Servants the 
Prophets, and to the Saints, and them that fear thy Name, 
small and great. But some will say that the Saints do not 
know or understand our Prayers ; to such we answer that 
although, indeed, of themselves alone they may not hear nor 
know our Prayers, yet nevertheless, by the divine Favour 
and Eevelatioii wherewith God abundantly blesseth them, 
they will both see and understand ; and as Elisha knew what 
his Servant hath done on the Way (2 Kings ch. v.), in like 
Manner, also, do the Saints know and hear the Necessities 
of those who call upon them, even by the divine Communi- 
cations. Furthermore, also, we do address ourselves unto the 
Angels, that they would assist us with their Support and 
Favour before God, inasmuch as it is they who present the 
Prayers of Men, and our Deeds of Charity, and other good 
Works imto the divine Majesty. Now, seeing that after 
Death the Saints become as the Angels, they can therefore, 
undoubtedly, in like Manner both know our Necessities and 
hear our Prayers, and also help us by their Intercession. 
From whence it follows that we are far from offending 
ao-ainst this Commandment when we put up our Prayers 

150 The Orthodox Confession of the 

uuto the Saints, who, standing always like faithful Servants 
hefore the divine Majesty, can therefore become Supplicants 
for our Salvation unto that One Only True God. 

On the other Hand, if we despise and reject the Assist- 
ance and labouring for us of the Saints, we shall most 
grievously offend the divine Majesty ; forasmuch as we refuse 
to do Honour unto those who have most faithfully and 
most holily served him. 

Having now finished the Doctrine of this Commandment, 
we shall conclude with laying down two Things which 
every Christian ought to understand aright. The First 
is, that we do not in any way trespass against this Com- 
mandment of the Decalogue, nor weaken its Authority ; 
neither do we in any wise act beside the Intention and 
Meaning thereof by our praying to the Saints, seeing that 
the Honour which is done unto the Saints is rendered 
through them to the Majesty of God himself, unto whom 
the Saints are become dear and acceptable because of their 
Faith, and the Lives, adorned with all Virtues, whicli they 
lived whilst on Earth. Wherefore it is right and a Duty to 
reverence the Saints of God, according to the Scripture (Psal. 
cxxxix. 17), how dear unto me are all thy Saints, God! 
forasmuch as through them we obtain the Favour and Assist- 
ance of God, as formerly the Friends of Job whom the 
Lord commanded that they should go unto his faithful 
Servant Joh, that he might pray for them, and that for his 
Sake their Offences might be forgiven. The second necessary 
Point is, that this Commandment forbids that we should 
worship any created Thing whatever with the Worship called 
Latvia, which we have before expounded. For we do hj no 
means worship the Saints of God with that most holy Worship 
of Latria, but modestly call upon them as our Brethren and 
the Friends of God, praying that they would obtain the 
divine Help and Assistance for us their Brethren, and be 
as Mediators with God for us. And this is in no wise 
repugnant to this Precept of the Decalogue ; for as the People 
of Israel sinned not in calling upon Moses to intercede with 
God for them, so neither do we sin in desiring the Assist- 
ance and Intercession of the Saints. 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 151 

Question 53. 
What is the second Commandment ? 


T/iOu shalt not make to thyself any graven Image., nor the 
Likeness of any Thing that is in Heaven above, or in the Earth 
beneath, or in the Waters under the Earth. Thou shalt not 
fall down to them, nor worship them. 

Question 54. 
How is this Commandment to be understood ? 


This Commandment is distinct from the former, for that 
treateth concerning the True God, and his being only One, 
and taketh away and prohibiteth the vain Crowd of false 
Gods ; whereas this Commandment relateth to certain out- 
ward Eites and Ceremonies, namely, that we should not 
only not worship false Gods, but that we should also not make 
or dedicate any graven Image in Honour of them, nor give 
religious Worship unto Idols, or perform Sacrifices and 
solemn Rites to them. Those, therefore, sin against this 
Commandment who worship Idols as Gods, and offer Sacrifice 
unto them, and trust in them : According to the Psalmist 
(Psal. cxxxv. 15), The Images of the Heathen are but Silver 
and Gold, the Work of Men's Hands. They have Mouths, 
and speak not; Eyes have they, and they see not. They have 
Ears, and hear not; neither is there any Breath in their 
Mouths. Those that make them are like unto them ; and so 
are all they that put their Trust in them. They also break 
this Commandment who give themselves up to Covetousness, 
of whom the Scripture speaketh thus {Coloss. iii. 5), Mortify 
therefore your Members which are upon the Earth ; Fornica- 
tion, Uiicleanness, Effeminacy, inordinate Affections, evil Con- 
cupiscence, and Covetousness, which is Idolatry. Gluttons, 
likewise, and they who are given up to riotous Living, sin 

152 The Orthodox Confession of the 

against this Precept, of whom the Scripture thus speaketh 
( Philip, iii. 19), Their God is their Belly, and their Qlory is 
in their Shame, who mind earthly Things. Moreover, they are 
guilty of breaking this Commandment who use Enchantments 
and Juggling, who put their Trust and Confidence in Fortune 
and Fate, who seek by Soothsaying and Divinations to 
Icnow what is to come to pass, and pretend to foretell future 
Things by the Lines of the Hand, by Witchcraft and con- 
juring up of Spirits, by Observations of Water, and the like. 
They also who endeavour by Spells and Sorcery to transform 
Men into brutal Forms, and they who wear Amulets for 
turning away of Evils, and who carry about them, or bind 
on their Bodies, Scrolls inscribed with Oracles, or Prophecies, 
or magical Characters, and by looking on such Scrolls, or 
muttering over them certain Invocations, or whirling them 
around them, do believe that nothing, whilst such Charms 
are present, can have Power to hurt them, whether Fire, or 
Water, or Sword, or any other Weapon. And all they who 
use conjuring Wands, knotted Strings, and other unlawful 
Remedies, which are also condemned and disallowed by the 
Art of Curing and Physicians, whether the same be by magi- 
cal Verses, or Characters, or any other kind of Thing which 
they hang up, interweave, untie, or any Way else apply, 
as in Earrings for the Ears, in Rings for the Fingers, or 

Question 65. 

What are we to think of the Images which the Church 
worshippeth and reverenceth ? 


There is a very great Diiference between Images and 
Idols. An Idol is a mere Fiction and Invention of Men, as 
the Apostle testifieth (1 Cor. viii. 4), An Idol is nothing in 
the World. But au Image is a Representation showing 
forth a real Thing that is actually being in the World, as 
the Image of our Saviour Christ, of the holy Virgin Mary, 
and of all other Saints. Besides, the Heathens worshipped 
their Idols as Grod, and offered Sacrifices unto them, thinking 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 153 

Gold and Silver to be true Deities, as of old did Nebuchad- 
nezzar. Wliereas we, in worshipping and reverencing Images, 
do not adore the Painting or the Wood, but we respect the 
Saints who are thereby represented, aud worship them with 
that kind of Worship which is called Dulia, placing them, 
by the Kepresentation, before our Eyes as if they were in 
our Sight aud we really beheld them ; as, for instance, 
whilst we worship a Crucifix, we thereby set Christ himself 
before our Mind hanging upon the Cross of our Salvation ; 
and unto him, with religious Gratitude, do we bend our 
Knee and bow down our Heads. So, in like manner, when 
we reverence the Image of the Virgin Mary, we ascend in 
our Minds unto the most holy Mother of God ; to her it is 
that we bow down our Heads, to her we bend our Knees, 
and it is her that, with the Archangel Gabriel, we proclaim 
the most blessed of all Men aud Women. It is evident, 
therefore, that the Worship of holy Images, which is received 
into the orthodox Church, is not contrary to this Command- 
ment, as it is neither the same with that which is given to 
God, nor is it addressed unto the Work of Art — that is, the 
Picture — but unto the Persons of those Saints whom the 
Images represent unto us. Furthermore, as the Cherubim 
that overshadowed the Ark of the Covenant represented those 
real Cherubs who serve God and stand before his Face in 
Heaven, and the Israelites worshipped and reverenced them 
without breaking this Commandment of God ; and, in like 
manner, as the Jews sinned not, nor broke this Command 
of the Decalogue, but rather honoured God with more Glory, 
when they worshipped the Ark of the Covenant, and received 
it with Honour and Respect (2 Sam. vi. 13) ; So neither do 
we transgress this Command of the Decalogue by reverencing 
holy Images, but rather more highly praise God, who is 
wonderful in his holy Places {Psal. ixviii. 35). Neverthe- 
less we must take Care that every Image has the Name 
of the Saint it representeth inscribed on it, that thereby 
it may the more readily answer the Intention and Design of 
the Worshipper. 

We may add, furthermore, in Confirmation of what we 
have said concerning the Worship of holy Images, that the 

154 The Orthodox Confession of the 

Church of God, in the seventh General Council, hath pro- 
nounced a dreadful Anathema against the Image-breakers, 
and hath established and confirmed to all Ages the Worship 
of holy and venerable Images : As is manifest in the Ninth 
Canon of the Council. 

Question 56. 

For what Reason, then, was Mezeldah praised in the Old 
Testament, who broke in Pieces the brazen Serpent that Moses 
had formerly set up and dedicated ? (2 Kings xviii. 4.) 


Because the Jews began to fall away from the Worship of 
the true Grod, worshipping the Serpent as true God, and 
offering Incense unto it, as the Scripture showeth. There- 
fore to cut off this Evil, and that it might not spread farther, 
Hezekiah breaks in Pieces the Serpent, that it might give no 
further Occasion of Idolatry to the Israelites. But had there 
not been given unto it the Worship of latria, he would not 
have broken the Serpent, nor have condemned the Israelites 
of Idolatry. We Christians do not worship Images as God, 
nor in our Approaches to them do we depart from the Latria, 
which is due only to God himself; but rather by the Help 
of the Image are we, as it were, led by the Hand unto God ; 
whilst in their Images we honour the Saints, as the Friends 
of Gud, with the worship of Dulia, and beseech them to render 
our God propitious and favourable unto us. But if any one 
out of Ignorance should worship Images otherwise than herein 
is taught, surely it would be better that such an one should 
be instructed rightly in this Matter than that the Worship 
of venerable Images should be banished of the Church. 

Question 57. 
What is the third Commandment ? 


Thou shall not take the Name of the Lord thy God in vain, for 
the Lord will not hold him guiltless that taketh his Name in vain. 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 155 

Question 58. 
What doth this Commandment teach us ? 


First, It teacheth us that we should hold the Name of the 
Lord God in the highest and most awful Respect and Honour, 
nor ever use it lightly or jestingly, nor on trifling Occasions 
or for unjust Purposes. Secondly, Tliat by no means we call 
the Name of God to gain Credit to a Falsehood, nor perjure 
ourselves. Thirdly, That we do not give Occasion or Advice 
to others to be Forsworn. Fourthly, that we do most de- 
voutly observe and fulfil whatever Vows we make unto God, 
according to that Scripture (Deut. xxiii. 21), When thou shalt 
vow a Vow unto the Lord thy God, thou shalt not slack to pay it ; 
for the Lord thy God tvill surely require it of thee ; and it would 
be Sin in thee. And in this Sort are all they guilty who, 
having promised in their Baptism that they would persevere 
in the right and true Faith of God to their Life's End, yet 
afterwards sufi'er themselves to be drawn away for self- 
interest or Danger of Suffering ; us, namely, for fear of being 
hart in their worldly Honours, or Estate, or Life, and do 
therefore abjure and renounce that which they had before 
so solemnly sworn and promised unto God: Couceruing the 
Danger of which Apostasy the renowned Apostle St. Paul 
rejoiceth in these Words (2 Tim. iv. 7), I liave fought a good 
Fight ; I have finished my Course ; L have kept the Faith. 

QuES'iuON 59. 
Wliat is the fourth Commandment ? 


Remember that thou keep holy the Sabbath-day ; six Bays shalt 
thou labour, and do all that thou hast to do. But the seventh Day 
is the Sabbath of the Lord thy God ; in it thou shalt do no manner 
of Work, thou, nor thy Son, nor thy Daughter, nor thy Man-servant, 
nor thy Maid-servant, nor thy Cattle, nor thy Stranger that is 

156 The Orthodox Confession of the 

within thy Gates; fw in six Days the Lord made Heaven and 
Earth, the Sea, and all thai in them is, and rested the seventh Day : 
Wherefore the Lord Messed the seventh Day and hallowed it. 

Question 60. 
What are we to learn from this Conmandment ? 


Hereby we are to know that Grod hath set apart one Day 
in seven, to the end that Mortals might be mindful of the 
Benefits which he continually bestoweth upon Mankind, and 
that for an especial Memorial of all his Blessings and Mer- 
cies he hath hallowed this Day, in which Men, meditating 
upon the gracious Goodness of God, might give thanks unto 
him and glorify his Majesty. Therefore, when in six Days 
God had created the whole Universe out of nothing, and had 
rested the seventh Day, he sanctified it ; that Men, laying aside 
all other Employments, might with extraordinary Devotion 
worship and praise God, in Remembrance of the great Bless- 
ings he hath bestowed upon us in the Creation of the World. 
So, likewise, when he had delivered the Israelites out of Egypt, 
he was pleased to establish the Feast of the Passover by 
Moses; as also many other Feasts and solemn Times, which 
are mentioned in the Old Testament, and were to be 
observed. But we Christians, instead of the Sahhath, keep 
holy the Lord's Day, which we do because on the Lord's Day 
the World was renewed and human Nature delivered from 
the Bondage of the Devil by the glorious Resurrection of our 
Lord Jesus Christ. Wherefore we ought to abstain this whole 
Day from every kind of Work and Employment, that with 
quiet and undisturbed Minds we may entirely be given up 
the whole Time unto Prayer and holy Meditations for the 
great Benefits we have received. And, likewise, our Families 
and Servants must do no work on that Day ; but beino- at 
Rest and Leisure, let them be employed only in holy Thing's, 
praying unto God and praising him. Furthermore, by this 
Commandment we are obliged to observe and keep all such 
other Days as the Church hath required us to keep holy, such 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 157 

as the Feasts of Thanksgiving, of the Nativity of Christ, of 
tlie Cirmmcision, of the iJpiphany, of the Purification of the 
Blessed Virgin, of the Mesurrection, Ascension, &c. ; also the 
Festivals of the Ever- Virgin-Mary, the Apostles, the Martyrs, 
and of other Saints. Now, after what Manner the Lord's Day 
ought to be observed the sixth General Council teacheth in 
the Ninety-first Canon. Moreover, another Cause of transfer- 
ring the Sabbath to the Lord's Day is this, namely, that Christ 
is Lord of the Sabbath, according to the Scripture {Matth. 
xii. 8), For the Son of Man is Lord even of the Sabbath-day. 
If, therefore, Christ be Lord of the Sabbath, then surely the 
Sabbath is with great Reason transferred to the Lord's Day, 
both because Christ might not seem to be in any Subjection 
thereunto, and also because on that Day, and none other, 
did Christ arise from the Dead : Whereby the World, as to 
its eternal Salvation, was renewed and restored. 

Question 61. 
What is the fifth Commandment ? 


(Exod. XX. 12), Honour thy Father and thy Mother, that it 
may be well with thee, and that thy Days may be long in that 
good Land which the Lord thy God giveth thee. 

Question 62. 
How is this Commandment to be understood ? 


This Commandment requireth us to honour our Parents, 
and to render all Obedience and Respect unto them, as they 
both begat us and raised us up. And even natural Reason 
would teach us that it was highly just and good to love those 
from whom we came, even although there were not any 
Command of God to oblige us to do so ; for we are beholden 
unto them for the highest of all Benefits, and which we can 
ia no wise possibly make them a like Return of, inasmuch 

158 The Orthodox Confession of the 

as we can by no Means beget those who begot us ; and there- 
fore, since, next to God, we have not received from any so 
great Benefits as from them (except spiritual Gifts), assuredly 
unto them do we owe the highest Affection and Obedience, 
lu these Words, Father and Mothee, this Commandment 
likewise comprehendeth all those from whom we receive any 
Good, as our spiritual Fathers, our Teachers, Masters, Kindred, 
Kings, Magistrates, and the like ; which the Apostle declareth 
ill these Words {Rom. xiii. 1), Let every Soul he subject to the 
higher Powers. And again (ver. 7), Honour to whom Honour. 
And {Bom. i. 31) lie calleth those who are disobedient unto 
their Parents without Understanding. However, we must be 
careful that nothing be contrary to the Glory of God or his 
most holy Commandments, always remembering that we must 
obey God rather than our Parents : According to the Doctrine 
of Christ (Matth. x. 37), He that loveth Father or Mother more 
than me is not worthy of me. And the same is to be under- 
stood of all our Superiors. Lastly, We should let this Eegard 
and Eespect that we owe to our Superiors shine forth in 
Goodwill and Submission, and speaking honourably of them, and 
the like. 

Question 63. 

What is the sixth Commandment ? 

Thou shall not kill. 

Question 64. 

How is this Commandment to be understood ? 


This Commandment teacheth us that Man-slaying is by no 
means to be committed by a righteous Man who feareth God, 
whether it be a killing of the Body or of the Soul. Those 
who kill the Body do only take away a temporary Life, but 
those who kill the Soul deprive it of eternal Life ; and these 
are by far the most criminal Man-slayers. Of this sort are 
Heretics, false Teachers, and wicked and reprobate Christians, 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 159 

who set au Example of evil Living; that is, when they 
become Stumbling-blocks unto others. Concerning whom the 
Scripture judgeth thus (Matth. sviii. 6), Whosoever shall offend 
one of these little ones that believe in me, it were tetter for him 
that a Millstone were hanged about his Neck, and that he were 
drowned in the depth of the Sea. Furthermore, a Person maj 
be guilty of killing not only by his own Act, but also by 
persuading of another^ to do it, by assisting, instigating, 
and consenting to others. This Commandment also compre- 
hendeth all whatsoever may produce or cause killing, as 
Pride, Envy, Hatred, Covetousness, and the like. 

Question 65. 
What is the seventh Commandment? 

Thou shalt not commit Adultery. 

Question 67. 
How is this Commandment to be understood ? 


Our Lord Jesus Christ enjoined the most exact and perfect 
observation of this Commandment when he said {Matth. v. 28), 
Whosoever looketk on a Woman to lust after her hath com- 
mitted Adultery with her already in his Heart. Now, this 
Adultery is twofold, the one spiritual, the other bodily ; the 
spiritual Adultery is, when any one, putting off the true 
orthodox and catholic Faith, turneth aside into various 
Heresies. Of such an one the Scripture speaketh thus {Psal. 
Ixxiii. 26), They that forsake thee shall perish ; thou hast de- 
stroyed all them that commit Fornication against thee. Bodily 
Adultery is an unclean and immodest Action committed 
with the Wife of another Man. By this Commandment, 
likewise, all other Lewdness and Wantonness is forbidden ; 
as also procuring and alluring others to Unchastity, indecent 

160 The Orthodox Confession of the 

and obscene Songs, and Dancing and Gestures : As the 
Apostle declares {Ephes. v. 3), Fornication, and all Vnclean- 
ness, or Covetousness, let it not once be named amongst you, 
as hecometh Saints : neither Filthiness, nor foolish Talking, 
nor Jesting, which are not convenient. 

Question 67. 
What is the eighth Commandment ? 

Thou shall not steal. 

Question 68. 
How is this Commandment to be understood? 


This Commandment teacheth us that we are not to possess 
ourselves of that which belongeth unto another by any unjust 
Means whatever, whether it be by Robbery, or Theft, or 
violently withholding the Right of another. Hereby is also 
forbidden the taking away another's good Name and Eeputa- 
tion, the exacting too much of one's Hireling or Tenants, 
and the imposing too hard Conditions of Service on them. 
This likewise respects Usury. Of all which the Apostle 
thus pronounceth (1 Cor. vi. 10), iVor Thieves, nor Covetous, 
nor Drunkards, nor Revilers, nor Extortioners, shall inherit 
the Kingdom of God. This Commandment regardeth, also, 
all just Contracts and Bargains, in which we are required 
to be strictly true and upright, that we defraud not one 

Question 69. , 
What is the ninth Commandment ? 


(Exodus XX. 16), Thou shall not hear false Witness against thy 

Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 161 

Question 70. 
How are we to understand this Commandment? 


This Commandment forbids us to speak any Falsehood of 
our Neighbour or hurt the Character of another out of Malice 
or a Desire of Eevenge ; in a Word, that we should avoid 
all evil Dispositions and Passions, that we become not the 
Children of the Devil, and like unto those of whom our Lord 
spake {John viii. 44), Te are of your Father the Devil, and the 
Lusts of your Father ye will do. He was a Murderer from the 
Beginning, and abode not in the Truth, because there is no Truth 
in him. When he speaheth a Lie, he speaketh of his own : for he 
is a Liar, and the Father of it. 

In a more especial Manner it behoveth all such as are 
called to sit in Judgment that they most carefully observe this 
Commandment, that they be not led aside by the Testimony 
of false Witnesses or Writings, but that they judge onlj- 
righteous Judgment, lest they become the Children of the 
Devil and Heirs of Hell. 

Question 71. 
What is the tenth Commandment ? 


(Exodus XX. 17), Thou shalt not covet thy Neighbour's Wife, 
thou shalt not covet thy Neighbour's House, nor his Land, nor his 
Man-servant, nor his Maid-se7-vant, nor his Ox, nor his Ass, nor 
any Thing that is his. 

Question 72. 

After what Manner are we rightly to understand this 
Commandment ? 


Among all the Commandments that relate to Charity or 
Love towards our Neighbour, this is the most complete and 


162 The Orthodox Confession of the Eastern Church. 

full, for it not only forbiddeth outward Actions, but even 
also those of the inward Parts of Man, and the evil Inclina- 
tions which arise from the deliberate Purposes and Will of 
Men's Minds to do Evil. This Commandment, therefore, 
fulfilletli all Christian Perfection ; and he who truly keepeth 
it may be thought to have done full Justice to his Neigh- 
bour. For That Which Thou Wouldbst Not That 
Another Should Do Unto Thee, That Do Thou Not Unto 
Another. And herein is all Christian Salvation contained, 
that No One Should Desire Anything That Is Averse To 
God Or His Neighbour, but, on the other Hand, that He 
Should Love God More Than Himself, and His Neigh- 
bour As Himself. 

These Duties if we perform and do in this World with 
the Love of our Lord and God, rightly and duly, and 
with the Catholic and Orthodox Faith, Then surely, 
without any doubting, we may hope to obtain the supreme 
Perfection of Charity in the World to Come, and to praise 
and celebrate in Heaven that One only God, who is wor- 
shipped in Trinity, The Father, The Son, and The Holy 
Ghost, for ever and for ever. Amen. 

The End. 
And may Glory be to God. 


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"A most interesting account of the early clerical life of the author. 

Father Humphrey was bred to the law, and his name appears 

in the list of Advocates in Aberdeen in i860. He soon, however, forsook the 
law for theology, and after a sojourn at Cumbrje College and Trinity College, 
Glenalmond, he took orders in the Scottish Episcopsd Church, and from that 

he, — verted to Rome His 'Recollections' of the Rev. P. 

Cheyue and Thomson of Banchory, the Rev. Fredk. Geo. Lee and Bishop 
Forbes of Brechin, are extremely interesting, as also are his picturesque 
anecdotes and sketches of Scottish Life." 







SAMUEL J. EALES, D.C.L., etc., 

Editor of Dupanloup's " Ministry of Preaching," &'c. 

In I vol., cr. 8vo, buckram, price 3s. net. 


Against the affectations of Wit and Brilliancy in Sermons — Tliat the 
object of Eloquence is to instruct men and render them better — Observations 
on the method of Learning Sermons and Delivering them by heart, also on 
divisions and sub-divisions — True Eloquence, in what it consists : how- 
admirable is that of Holy Scripture — The means of Training oneself for 
preaching — ^What ought to be the chief matter of Instructions — On the 
Eloquence of the Fathers and their style — On Panegyrics, etc. 


" Young Preachers would do well to read these Dialogues. . . . The 
Translator has done his work well, and the Introductory Essay strikes the note 
of Fenilon's Discourse. . . . Young men, especially if they have been 
educated at a Scots University, imagine that a good Sermon must wrestle 
with great problems, not so Pension, ' The proper way to prove the truth of 
religion is to state it clearly.' Read this book." — Scottish Guardian. 

" There is no royal road to eloquence, but there are roads, nevertheless, 
and these pages contain many useful directions and precepts." — ITie Christian, 

" Those who aspire to become great preachers will profit by the study of 
these Dialogues." — Christian Globe. 

" Everybody has heard of the great and lovely Archbishop FenMon, and 
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say 'here it is.' The teachings of a devout soul as to how God's Word should 
be preached." — Southern Churchman (U.S.). 

"The twenty-thousand or more of Sermons which are preached every 
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heart." — Manchester Guardian. 




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" A most fascinating book, dealing artfully and skilfully — with the art and 
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" The work of an accomplished scholar and a painstaking reader. Here 
and there are passages full of spirit and originality. . . . The product of 
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" There is the same picturesqueness of detail, the same vigorous denuncia- 
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The Chxjrch in Spain under Ferdinand and 
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Dom Bartholomew of the MartjTs 

(O.P. and Archbishop of Braga in Portugal) . 

Translated from the Biographies of Fr, Louis, of Grenada, and others, by 

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" It was during the sittings of the Council of Trent, and his occasional 
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with the utmost boldness and franlmess, and never minced his words, when he 
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imposing volume. — Freeman's journal. 




Conferences at Rome, Florence and Milan, 


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Contents : 

Volume I. — Existence of God— Who God is — True Conception of Man — The 
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belief — The Working Classes — Mary. 

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The Great Paschal — Easter Eve. 

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subjects." — Cath. University Bulletin. 

" The book is written without a trace of theological bias, and will be of 
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"This is a volume abounding with facts collected from many sources with 
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Containing an Account of its Origin, Doctrines, Worship, Revenues, and 
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Decline of Piety and Learning — Reform by St. Dunstau — Foreign Missions- 
Notes, &c., &c. 

" Tliis valuable work opened the eyes of the public to the misrepresentations 
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more truthful historical research." — Gillow. 

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Sofnefime Lord Chancellor of EnsUmd^ 

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Translated from the original Spanish by the Rev. JOHN DALTON, 

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Translated fiom the Spanish by the Rev. JOHN DALTON, 

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Translated from the original Spanish by the Rev. JOHN DALTON. 
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The only current English Translations of the Works of this great 
Spanish Saint and Mystic. 

"The Holy Teresa is a prodigy of wisdom and sanctity; her works are 
not sufliciently known." — GangancUi. 




Of the Order of Our Lady of Mount Carmel. 
Newly translated and corrected from the last Spanish edition (of 1885), and 

with an entirely New Life of the Saint, by DAVID LEWIS, Esq. 
Two thick volumes, demy 8vo, cloth extra - - - £1 Is. net. 

Contents : 

Life of the Author— The Ascent of Mount Carmel— The Dark Night of the 

Soul— The Living Flame of Love — Letters— Spiritual Maxims, etc. 

Extracts relating: to St. John of the Cross and his Works. 

I. Clement X. in the Beatification of St. John of the Cross, 1675. 
" He not only left an example worthy of all praise in the guidance of his 
own Order, but he even poured over the Universal Church the spiritual 
fragrance which the Divine Goodness hjid so largely shed upon him." 

— Bull, Rom. Tom. vii. p. 287. 
II. Benedict Xni., in. the Canonization of the Saint, 1726. 
"In him Spain gave to the Catholic Church a man renowned for Christian 
virtues and heavenly doctrine. . . . Like St. Teresa, he was divinely 
taught to explain in his writings the secrets of mystical theology." 

Bull, Rom. Tom. xii.p. I7S' 
III. The Roman Breviary. 
Feast of St. John of the Cross, Nov. it,. 
"His writings on Mystical Theology are full of heavenly wisdom." 

IV. The University of Alcala, 1618. 
" His writings contain almost everything that is useful for the direction of 
souls. . . . 

" It is evident to anyone who reads his works, that they were written by 
one chosen of God, and assisted by Him in an extraordinary manner to write 
with so much ease and grace on such difficult subjects, and so aptly to elucidate 
them by the authority of Holy Scripture. 

' We judge, therefore, from the soundness and fitness of his doctrine, that 

those who have the cure of souls should keep his works always before their eyes." 

V. From Documents laid before the S. Congregation of Rites 

TO promote the Canonization of the Saint, 1725. 

" His writings on Mystical Theology, now spread through many kingdoms, 

are full of Divine wisdom. 

" Their style is so lofty and wonderful that, in the judgment of every one, 

the knowledge of B. John of the Cross could not haye been acquired by the 

power of the human intellect, but that it was revealed and infused from heaven." 

" Their study is of great use in constraining souls to begin the way, and 

embrace the life of perfection." 


" The writings of St. John of the Cross possess the same authority in 
Mystical Theology that the writings of St. Thomas and the Fathers possess in 
Dogmatic Theology."— Instruct, sur les itats d'oraison, liv. I, No. 12. 

" Mr. Lewis' life of the saint is full, in fact, of matter which will amply 
repay thoughtful and careful study, and can be warmly recommended to all 
persons who are not already cognisant of its purport. . . . The book is 
capitally printed in clear type on good paper." — Tablet. 




0/ the Order of Our Lady of ML Carmel, 
BoKN 1542, Died 1591. 

Compiled from all his Spanish Biographers and from 
other sources. 

Translated and Edited by DAVID LEWIS, M.A. 

In I thick vol, cr. 8vo (over 300 pp.), cloth extra, 
4s. 6d. net. 

"Mr. Lewis's Life of St. Joha of the Cross is no mere sketch, but afinished 
picture from the hand of one who Icnew the Catholic Aspects of Spain in the 
sixteenth century better than any other English writer." — Dublin Review. 

" In this volume we have the gist of the best lives of St. John of the Cross, 
from that of Fra Joseph of Jesus to that of Garnica, 1893. The deep human 
interest of the life of the great mystic loses nothing in the hands of Mr. Lewis." 
— Caik. University Bulletin, 

" A very admirable worlc, which we warmly commend to our readers, and 
which is well calculated to stimulate the study of Hagiography." — Cath. Times. 






Thick cr. 8vo, cloth - - - - 6s. 6d. net. 


Man's knowledge of God's existence — Man's knowledge of what God is — 
The Essence and the Attributes of God — The absolute properties of the Divine 
Essence — The negative properties of the Divine Essence — God's knowledge — 
God's sincere will of man's salvation — God the one Creator — God, as the author 
of nature — God, as the authoi: of the supernatural — The Paradise of God's 
Creation — The inner Life of God. 

"Father Humphrey's numerous works make an almost complete library of 
dogmatic, scriptural, moral, and ascetical theology. Some of tnem appeal to 
Catholics exclusively, others are polemical, or at least apologetic, in the scientific 
meaning of the term. His last voKme claims the respectful attention of every 
man who recognizes the forces of a spiritual being within or around him. 
Every detail of any truth which directly concerns his Divine Majesty, the only 
one true and living God, must necessarily be of supreme interest to every 
thinking man." — American Ecclesiastical Review, May, 1897. 

" This is the title of a comprehensive treatise on the one true God (de Deo 
Uno) and God the Creator (de Deo Creante). The title has been suggested by 
the Spiritual Exercises of St. Ignatius, where it occurs no less than twenty- 
four times to express the Saint's great reverence and homage to the Supreme 
Being. It comprises in twelve chapters what revelation teaches on the existence, 
essence, attributes, properties, knowledge, will, creative action and inner life 
of God. The author has freely used the lectures of Cardinal Franzelin and 
Father Palmieri, both of whom were at one time his professors at the Roman 
College. Like the many other works by which Father Humphrey has enriched 
our theological literature, this volume is distinguished by solidity and accuracy 
of doctrine. This work is by no means light reading, but this defect, if defect 
it may be called, is inherent in the subject, and is more than compensated by 
the author's depth and width of grasp. The book will prove valuable to the 
clergy and to the edlicated laity who are eager to get an insight into some of 
the most profound truths and mysteries of our holy faith." — Messenger of Sac. 
Heart, New York. 


S. ANSELMI (Archiep. Cantuar., A.D. MCIX.). 



i2mo, cloth 2s. net. 

The correctness of the Latin text of this edition is vouched for by the fact 
that it was seen through the press by the late Dr. Littledale. 




Rector of Tyneham and Prebendary of Lincoln. 


Translated from the French of PERE GROU.